توسعه‌ روشی برای ارزیابی خطر آتش‌سوزی جنگل با استفاده از متغیرهای محیطی و انسان‌ساخت

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

دکتری جنگلداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

چکیده

پژوهش پیش‌رو به‌منظورارزیابی خطر آتش‌سوزی به‌روش همپوشانی و با استفاده از متغیرهای مختلف محیطی و انسان‌ساخت در جنگل‌های بخش سه نکا- ظالمرود انجام شد. ابتدا نقشه‌های زیرمعیارهای عامل‌های فیزیوگرافی، زیست‌شناختی، اقلیمی و انسان‌ساخت تهیه شد. همچنین نقشه آتش‌سوزی‌های گذشته منطقه از شرکت نکاچوب تهیه و رقومی شد. سپس نقشه مناطق آتش‌سوزی گذشته با نقشه‌ زیرمعیارهای هر یک از معیارهای مذکور روی‌هم‌گذاری شد تا میزان همپوشانی طبقات پرخطر این نقشه‌ها با محدوده آتش‌سوزی‌های گذشته (اهمیت یا وزن هر زیرمعیار در وقوع آتش‌سوزی) مشخص شود. نتایج نشان داد زیرمعیارهای نوع و تراکم پوشش گیاهی، فاصله از رودخانه و میانگین رطوبت نسبی سالانه بیشترین تأثیر را در وقوع آتش‌سوزی این جنگل‌ها داشته‌اند. نقشه خطر وقوع آتش‌سوزی با ادغام وزنی کلیه نقشه‌های زیرمعیارهای موثر در GIS در پنج طبقه تهیه شد. در نهایت نقشه آتش‌سوزی‌های گذشته با نقشه خطر آتش‌سوزی روی‌هم‌گذاری شد. نتایج نشان داد که مناطق پرخطر آتش‌سوزی در نقشه‌ پتانسیل خطر تهیه‌ شده با روش همپوشانی، تطابق زیادی با مناطق آتش‌سوزی‌های گذشته دارند که نشان‌دهنده اعتبار و صحت زیاد روش مورد استفاده می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Developing a method to assess forest fire risk using environmental and human variables

نویسنده [English]

  • Saeideh Eskandari
Ph.D. Forestry, Forestry Department, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
چکیده [English]

A study was conducted to evaluate fire risk using environmental- and human-induced factors in‌ District Three of Neka-Zalemroud forests. For this purpose, a range of effective sub-criteria including physiographic, biological, climatic and human variables were applied. The historical fire map‌‌‌ in study area was additionally used. It was overlaid on the spatial map of each sub-criterion to explore the correlation of the weighted high-risk classes with the historical fire occurrences. Fire risk potential map was provided based on weighted overlay of all effective sub-criteria in five classes. The historical fire map was consequently overlaid on fire risk potential map. Results showed that vegetation type and density, distance from river and the averaged relative annual humidity were associated with the highest effects in fire occurrence. Results also demonstrated the agreement of high-risk areas in the potential fire risk map with the historical fires, which supports the high validity of the applied method to assess the fire risk across the study area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Neka-Zalemroud Forests
  • forest fire risk
  • GIS
  • human-induced criteria
  • environmental- induced criteria
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