تأثیر جنگلکاری بر میزان ترسیب کربن خاک و زی توده گیاهی در مناطق خشک (مطالعه موردی: پارک جنگلی بختیاردشت اصفهان)

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم مرتع، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

2 هیات علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد خوراسگان

3 هیات علمی دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

چکیده

تغییر اقلیم و افزایش گرمایش جهانی یکی از چالش‌های مهم‌ در بحث توسعه پایدار است که ناشی از افزایش غلظت گازهای گلخانه‌ای است. ترسیب کربن در زی‌توده گیاهی و خاک‌های تحت آن، ساده‌ترین و از نظر اقتصادی عملی‌ترین راهکار ممکن به‌منظور کاهش ‌کربن اتمسفری محسوب می‌شود. با توجه به اینکه جنگل‌های شهری از قابلیت بالایی برای جذب کربن اتمسفری و تعدیل اقلیم برخوردارند، بنابراین برای برآورد ترسیب‌کربن گونه کاج تهران (Pinus eldarica) کاشته شده در پارک جنگلی بختیاردشت اصفهان، نمونه‌برداری از زی‌توده، خاک (در دو عمق صفر تا 15 و 15 تا 30 سانتی‌متری) و لاشبرگ به‌صورت تصادفی- منظم انجام شد. ترسیب کربن در زی‌توده گیاهی از طریق معادلات آلومتریک و کربن آلی خاک از روش والکی-بلاک تعیین شد. نتایج نشان داد کشت گونه کاج تهران در این منطقه منجر به افزایش ترسیب کربن به مقدار 4/422 تن در هکتار نسبت به زمین بایر اطراف شده، که ارزش اقتصادی آن در کل مساحت منطقه کشت‌شده، بیش از 5 میلیون دلار محاسبه شد. همچنین نتایج توزیع کربن نشان داد که تنه درختان بیشترین سهم (40 درصد) از ترسیب کربن کل را دارا می‌باشند. بنابراین با توجه به مزایای بسیار زیاد ترسیب کربن، ضروری است که با مدیریت و محافظت مناسب این جنگل‌ها، گام مثبتی به‌منظور کاهش تراکم کربن اتمسفری و در نتیجه کاهش گرمایش جهانی و تغییرات اقلیمی برداشته شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The impact of afforestation on soil carbon sequestration and plant biomass in arid areas (Case study: Bakhtiardasht forest park, Isfahan)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Asghar Naghipour Borj 1
  • Hadi Radnezhad 2
  • Seyyed Hamid Matinkhah 3
1 Ph.D. Student in Range Sciences, Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
2 Scientific Member of Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran.
3 Scientific Member, Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Climate change and global warming result in an increased amount of greenhouse gases and, therefore, are amongst the most important challenges for sustainable development. The increment in the amount of Carbon sequestrated as plant biomass as well as within the underlying soils is considered as the easiest way to reduce the atmospheric carbon, which can also be economically implemented. In this regard, urban forests play an essential role in the major cities by absorbing the atmospheric carbon. Here, the existing Pinus eldarica stands planted in Bakhtiardasht forest park of Isfahan were studied for their level of carbon sequestration. To perform the estimation, the biomass, soil (in depths of 0-15cm and 15-30cm) and litter were sampled in a randomly systematic design. The Carbon sequestration in plant biomass and the soil organic carbon were measured by means of allometric equation and Walkly-Black method, respectively. The results indicated that the Pinus eldarica plantation led to an increasing amount of sequestrated Carbon up to 422.4 tons per hectare as compared with the surrounding barren land. The economic value of the resulted Carbon across the entire plantation area was valuated to exceed 5 million USD. The fixed carbon was shown to be mostly stem from the trunk of trees (40 percent). This study concludes such Carbon sequestration to be amongst the essential requirements for existing and upcoming forest conservation plans as an effective step to decrease of atmospheric carbon and mitigate the climate change effects.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Climate change
  • Carbon sequestration
  • afforestation
  • Bakhtiardasht forest park
  • Isfahan
- Anonymous, 2011. I.R of Iran meteorological organization (www.irimo.ir).

- Aradottir, A., Savarsdottir, L., Kristian, H., Jonsson, P. and Gudbergson, G. 2000. Carbon accumulation in vegetation and solids by reclamation of degraded areas. Icelandic Agricultural Sciences, 13: 99-113.

- Bakhtiarvand Bakhtiari, S. and Sohrabi, H. 2012. Allometric equations for estimating above and below-ground carbon storage of four broadleaved and coniferous trees. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 20(3): 481-492 (In Persian).

- Bordbar, S.K. and Mortazavi Jahromi, S.M. 2006. Carbon sequestration potential of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. and Acacia salicina Lindl. plantation in western areas of Fars province. Pajouhesh & Sazandegi, 70: 95-103 (In Persian).

- Cannell, M.G.R. 2003. Carbon sequestration and biomass energy offset theoretical, potential and achievable capacities globally in Europe and UK. Biomass and Bioenergy, 24(2): 97-116.

- Emmerich, W.E. 2002. Carbon dioxide fluxes in a semiarid environment with high carbonate soils. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 116: 91-102.

- Groffman, P.M., Pouyat, R.V., Cadenasso, M.L., Zipperer, W.C., Szlavecz, K., Yesilinis, I.D., Band, L.E. and Brush, G.S. 2006. Land use context and natural soil controls on plant community composition and soil nitrogen and carbon dynamics in urban and forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 236(2-3): 177-192.

- Hernandez, R.P., Koohafkan, P. and Antoine, J. 2004. Assessing carbon stocks and modeling win-win Scenarios of carbon sequestration through land-use changes. Published by FAO, Rome, 166p.

- Honda, Y., Yamamoto, H. and Kajiwara, K. 2000. Biomass information in central Asia. Publication of Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University: 1-33.

- Lal, R. 2004. Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change. Geoderma, 123: 1-22.

- Lal, R. 2005. Forest soils and carbon sequestration. Forest Ecology and Management, 220: 242-258.

- Lemma, B., Kleja, D.B., Nilsson, I. and Olsson, M. 2006. Soil carbon sequestration under different exotic tree species in the South Western Highlands of Ethiopia. Geoderma, 136: 886-898.

- Losi, Ch.J., Siccama, T.G., Condit, R. and Morales, J.E. 2003. Analysis of alternative methods for estimating carbon stock in young tropical plantations. Forest Ecology and Management, 184(1-3): 355-368.

- MacFarlane, D.W. 2009. Potential availability of urban wood biomass in Michigan: Implications for energy production, carbon sequestration and sustainable forest management in the U.S.A. Biomass and Bioenergy, 33: 628-634.

- Naghipour Borj, A.A., Haidarian Aghakhani, M., Dianati, Gh.A. and Tavakoli, H. 2008. Role of Iran’s gangelands in gbsorption of greenhouse gasses. Abstracts of the 2nd National Conference on World Environment Day, Iran, June 2008: 219-220 (In Persian).

- Naghipour Borj, A.A., Dianati Tilaki, Gh.A. Tavakoli, H. and Haidarian, M. 2009. Grazing intensity impact on soil carbon sequestration and plant biomass in semi arid rangelands (Case study: Sisab rangelands of Bojnourd). Iranian journal of Range and Desert Research, 16(3): 375-385 (In Persian).

- Naghipour Borj, A.A., Haidarian Aghakhani, M., Nasri, M. and Radnezhad, H. 2011. Changes in soil organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in modified and native rangeland communities (Case study: Sisab rangelands, Bojnourd). Journal of Rangeland Science, 1(4): 309-315 (In Persian).

- Naghipour Borj, A.A., Haidarian Aghakhani, M. and Nasri, M. 2012. An investigation of Carbon sequestration and plant biomass in modified rangeland communities (Case study: Sisab rangelands of Bojnourd). Pajouhesh & Sazandegi, 94: 19-24 (In Persian).

- Nobakht, A., Pourmajidian, M., Hojjati, S.M. and Fallah, A. 2011. A comparison of soil carbon sequestration in hardwood and softwood monocultures (Case study: Dehmian forest management plan, Mazandaran). Iranian Journal of Forest, 3(1): 13-23 (In Persian).

- Rice, C.W. 2000. Soil organic C and N in rangeland soils under elevation CO2 and land management. Advances in Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Inventory, Measurements and Monitoring Conference in Raleigh, North Carolina, 3-5 Oct. 2000: 15-24.

- Schuman, G.E., Janzen, H.H. and Herrick, J.E. 2002. Soil carbon information and potential carbon sequestration by rangelands. Environmental Pollution, 116: 391-396.

- Varamesh, S., Hosseini, S.M., Abdi, N. and Akbarinia, M. 2010. Increment of soil carbon sequestration due to forestation and its relation with some physical and chemical factors of soil. Iranian Journal of Forest, 2(1): 25-35 (In Persian).

- Wauters, J.B., Coudert, S., Grallien, E., Jonard, M. and Ponette, Q. 2008. Carbon stock in rubber tree plantations in Western Ghana and Mato Grosso (Brazil). Forest Ecology and Management, 255(7): 2347-2361.

- Zarinkafsh, M. 1993. Applied Soil Science, Soil Survey and Quantity Analysis of Soil- Water- Plant. Tehran University Press, 342p (In Persian).