ارزیابی ویژگی‌های رویشی بذر و نونهال بلوط‌های گروه Quercus libani

نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی


1 هیات علمی، موسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور

2 کارشناس ارشد پژوهش، موسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور


جنس بلوط از مهمترین جنس‌های درختی جنگل‌های ایران است که بیشترین تنوع گونه‌ای آن در جنگل‌های زاگرس شمالی قابل‌مشاهده است. در رده‌بندی نوین بلوط‌های ایران که براساس ویژگی‌های ریزریخت‌شناسی برگ و دانه گرده انجام شد، از گروه Quercus libani پنج گونه تأیید شدند که عبارتند از: Q. libani، Q. carduchorum ، Q. magnosquamata، Q. ophiosquamata و Q. apiculata. در این پژوهش در راستای تکمیل مطالعات پیشین، بذر پنج گونه یاد شده پس از شناسایی، از رویشگاه‌های طبیعی آنها در جنگل‌های بانه استان کردستان جمع‌آوری شد و پس از انتقال، در محیط گلخانه در شرایط یکسان کاشته شدند تا ارزیابی دقیق‌تری از صفات رویشی بذر آنها به‌دست آید. پس از جمع‌آوری بذرهای هر گونه از سه رویشگاه مختلف، بذرها در سه تکرار 50 تایی و در قالب آماری طرح کاملاً تصادفی کاشته شدند و سپس اندازه‌گیری صفات موردنظر در طول دوره رویش انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که بین گونه‌های موردمطالعه ازنظر صفات طول بذر، پهنای بذر و سرعت جوانه‌زنی در سطح اطمینان 99 درصد و ازنظر صفات ارتفاع نونهال، وزن تر ساقه، وزن خشک ساقه، وزن خشک ریشه و زی‌توده کل در سطح اطمینان 95 درصد اختلاف معنی‌دار وجود دارد. پس از ترسیم نمودار درختی حاصل از تحلیل خوشه‌ای نیز مشخص شد که گونه  Q.carduchorum به‌تنهایی در یک گروه و سایر گونه‌ها در گروه دیگری دسته‌بندی می‌شوند.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of acorn vegetative characteristics of Ouercus libani complex

نویسندگان [English]

  • Parisa Panahi 1
  • Mahnoush Rezaei 2
  • Mehdi Pourhashemi 1
  • Maryam Hasaninejad 2
1 Assistant Prof., Botany Research Division, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, ‎I.R. Iran
2 Associate Prof., Forest Research Division, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, I.R. Iran.‎
چکیده [English]

Northern Zagros Forests has remarkable diversity of oaks (Quercus sp.) as one of the most important tree species in Iran. Based on the modern taxonomy of this genus, five species of Q. libani, Q. carduchorum, Q. ophiosquamata, Q. magnosquamata and Q. apiculata were recognized form Q. libani complex. In order to complete the previous studies, here we evaluated the vegetative characteristics of acorns for those five species. Acorns of studied species were gathered from native forest stands of Baneh Forests in Kurdistan province. The acorns were then planted in a fully-identical condition in greenhouse. A completely randomized statistical design with three replications and 50 acorns per replication was used for statistical analysis. The results showed that the acorn length, acorn width and germination rate were significantly different (p < 0.01) amongst the five species. Furthermore, seedling height, wet and dry mass of stem, dry mass of root and total biomass of seedlings showed significant differences (p < 0.05) amongst the five species. Based on cluster analysis, Q. carduchorum was separated from other species and categorized in different category.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • seedling height
  • Acorn
  • germination rate
  • Kurdistan
- Agrawal, P.K. and Padlani, M. 1992. Techniques in seed science and technology. South Asian Publisher, 210p.
- Akbari, H., Gudarzi, D. and Sohrabi, S.R. 2001. The study of the effect of moisture-temperature factor on germination of oak (Quercus brantii) seeds in Khoramabad, Lorestan province. Iranian journal of Natural Resources, 54(3): 247-256 (In Persian).
- Alvaninejad, S., Tabari, M., Espahbodi, K., Taghvaei, M. and Hamzepour, M. 2008. Effect of desiccation on germination and vigor of Manna oak (Quercus brantii) acorns. Iranian Journal of Forests and Poplar Research, 16(4): 574-582 (In Persian).
- Alvaninejad, S., Tabari, M., Espahbodi, K., Taghvaei, M. and Hamzepour, M. 2010. Morphology and germination characteristics of Quercus brantii Lindl. acorns in nursery. Iranian Journal of Forests and Poplar Research, 17(4): 523-533 (In Persian).
- Anonymous, 1993. International rules for seed testing. Seed Science Technology, 21 (supplement rules), International Seed Testing Association, 258p.
- Bonfil, C. 1998. The effects of seed size, cotyledon reserves, and herbivory on seedling survival and growth in Quercus rugosa and Quercus laurina (Fagaceae). American Journal of Botany, 85(1): 79-87.
- Broncano, M.J., Riba, M. and Retana, J. 1998. Seed germination and seedling performance of two Mediterranean tree species, holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) and Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.): a multifactor experimental approach. Plant Ecology, 138: 17-26.
- Brookes, P.C. and Wigston, D.L. 1979. Variation of morphological and chemical characteristics of acorns from populations of Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Q. robur L.and their hybrids. Watsonia,12: 315-324.
- Caliskan, S. 2013. Germination and seedling growth of holm oak (Quercus ilex L.): effects of provenance, temperature, and radicle pruning. iForest- Biogeosciences and Forestry, 7(2): 103-109.
- Djavanchir Khoie, K. 1967. Les Chênes de L`Iran. Ph.D. Thesis, Universite de Montpellier, Faculte des Sciences, 221p.
- Felton, D. and Thompson, D. 2008. Seed source significantly influences growth, form and silvicultural management of oak. COFOR Connects, Reproductive Material No: 16, 8 p.
- Friday, J.B. 2000. Seed technology for forestry in Hawaii. CTAHR, University of Hawaii, 15p.
- Hampton, G.C. and Tekrony, D.M. 1995. Handbook of vigor test methods. 3rd edition, International Seed Testing Association (ISTA), Switzerland, 117p.
- Healy, W.M. 2002. Managing eastern oak forests for wildlife. In: McShea, W.J., Healy, W.M. (Eds.), Oak forest ecosystems ecology and management for wildlife. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, 317-332.
- Healy, W.M., Lewis, A.M. and Boose, E.F. 1999. Variation of red oak acorn production. Forest Ecology and Management, 116: 1-11.
- Jalili, I., Rabiei, V., Azami, M.A. and Daghestani, M. 2011. Genotypic diversity of Prune and Plum using morphological characteristics in Maragheh region. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal, 27-1(3): 357-374 (In Persian).
- Johnson, P.S., Shifley, S.R. and Rogers, R. 2002. The ecology and silviculture of oaks. CABI Publishing, 503p.
- Jones, J.H. 1986. Evolution of the Fagaceae: the implications of foliar features. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 73: 228-275.
- Karimi, Kh., Zolfaghari, R. and Fayyaz, P. 2011. The effect of seed morphology and different altitude origins of Persian oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) on germination and growth of one year old seedlings. Journal of Wood and Forest Sciences and Technology, 19(3): 127-141 (In Persian).
- Panahi, P. 2011. A study on the diversity of oak species in Iran using leaf and pollen micromorphology and determination of their conservative status. Ph. D. thesis, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Mazandaran, 186p (In Persian).
- Panahi, P., Jamzad, Z., Pourmajidian, M.R. and Fallah, A. 2011a. Importance of micromorphological characteristics of foliar and pollen grains for delimitation of oak species in Iran. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 19(1): 163-179 (In Persian).
- Panahi, P., Jamzad, Z., Pourmajidian, M.R., Fallah, A. and Pourhashemi, M. 2011b. A revision of Chestnutleaf oak (Quercus castaneifolia C.A.Mey; Fagaceae) in Hyrcanian Forests of Iran. Caspian Journal of Environmental Science, 9(2): 145-158.
- Panahi, P., Jamzad, Z., Pourmajidian, M.R., Fallah, A. and Pourhashemi, M. 2012a. Foliar epidermis morphology in Quercus (subgenus Quercus, section Quercus) in Iran. Acta Botanica Croatica, 71(1): 95-113.
- Panahi, P., Pourmajidian, M.R., Fallah, A. and Pourhashemi, M. 2012b. Pollen morphology of Quercus (subgenus Quercus, section Quercus) in Iran and its systematic implication. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 81(1): 33-41.
- Panahi, P., Jamzad, Z., Pourmajidian, M.R., Fallah, A. Pourhashemi, M. and Sohrabi, H. 2012c. Taxonomic revision of the Quercus brantii complex (Fagaceae) in Iran with emphasis on leaf and pollen micromorphology. Acta Botanica Hungarica, 54(3-4): 355-375.
- Panahi, P., Jamzad, Z., Pourmajidian, M.R., Fallah, A. and Pourhashemi, M. 2012d. Taxonomic implications of micro-morphological features for taxon delimitation within the Quercus libani complex (Fagaceae) in Iran. Phytologia Balcanica, 18(3): 263-276.
- Parvaneh, E., Etemad, V., Zobeiri, M. and Marvie Mohadjer, M.R. 2011. Investigation on the effect of tree forms on characteristics of Quercus brantii (Quercus persica) seeds (Case study: Zagros forests, Gilane Gharb). Iranian Journal of Forest, 3(3): 223-232 (In Persian).
- Ramirez-Valiente, J.A., Valladares, F., Gil, L. and Aranda, I. 2009. Population differences in juvenile survival under increasing drought are mediated by seed size in cork oak (Quercus suber L.). Forest Ecology and Management, 257(8): 1676-1683.
- Sabeti, H. 1976. Forests, trees and shrubs of Iran. Published by Ministry of Agricultural and Natural Resources of Iran, Tehran, Iran, 876p (In Persian).
- Singh, B., Saklani, K.P. and Bhatt, B.P. 2010. Provenance variation in seed and seedlings attributes of Quercus glauca Thunb. in Garhwal Himalaya, India. Dendrobiology, 63: 59-63.
- Schmidt, L. 2000. Guide to handling of tropical and subtropical forest seed. Danida Forest Seed Center, Denmark, 511p.
- Souhani, M.M. 2007. Seed technology. 2nd edition, Guilan University Press, 287p (In Persian).
- Tilki, F. 2010. Influence of acorn size and storage duration on moisture content,  germination  and survival  of  Quercus  petraea (Mattuschaka). Journal of Environmental  Biology, 31: 325-328.
- Tilki, F. and Alptekin, C.U. 2005. Variation in acorn characteristics in three provenances of Quercus aucheri Jaub. et Spach and provenance, temperature and storage effects on  acorn germination. Seed Science and Technology, 33(2): 441-447.
- Tilki, F. and  Alptekin, C.U. 2006. Germination and seedling growth of Quercus vulcanica: effects of stratification, desiccation, radicle pruning and season of sowing. New Forests, 32: 243-251.
- Updahaya, K., Pandey, H.N. and Law, P.S. 2007. The effect of seed mass on germination, seedling survival and growth in Prunus jenkinsii. Turkish Journal of Botany, 31: 31-36.
 - Zolfaghari, R., Nazari, M., Karimi, Kh., Fayyaz, P. and Alvaninejad, S. 2012. Relation between seed morphological characteristics of three native oak species of Zagros with germination characteristics and seedling growth. Journal of Forest and Wood Products (Iranian Journal of Natural Resources), 65(1): 33-45 (In Persian).