اندازه‌گیری و مدل‌سازی وزن لاشریزه و شاخص سطح برگ به‌روش آلومتری در یک جنگل راش- ممرز، ارتفاع میان‌بند جنگل‌های هیرکانی، ایران

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 هیات علمی دانشگاه گرگان

2 کارشناس ارشد جنگلداری، دانشگاه گرگان

چکیده

وزن لاشریزه و شاخص سطح برگ در فرایندهای زیستی مؤثر بر تولید جنگل شامل فتوسنتز، چرخه آب و عناصر غذایی نقش بسزایی دارند. در این پژوهش وزن لاشریزه یک توده راش- ممرز واقع در ارتفاع میان‌بند منطقه هیرکانی (طرح جنگلداری نکا- ظالمرود، بخش پنج) با استفاده از 27 جمع‌آوری‌کننده لاشریزه به‌مدت یکسال اندازه‌گیری شد. همچنین شاخص سطح برگ با روش وزنی و به‌وسیله دستگاه سطح‌برگ‌سنج و نیز لوله برش به‌دست آمد. بااستفاده از مشخصه‌های آلومتریک شامل تراکم، رویه زمینی، حجم تنه، مساحت و حجم تاج، برای برآورد وزن لاشریزه و شاخص سطح برگ، مدل رگرسیون ارائه شد. وزن کل لاشریزه 5/472 و وزن لاشبرگ 3/707 تن در هکتار در سال به‌دست آمد. میانگین شاخص سطح برگ با دستگاه سطح‌برگ‌سنج 7/5 و با لوله برش 7/7 به‌دست آمد. نتایج حاکی از آن است که مساحت و حجم تاج به‌دلیل داشتن ضریب تعیین بزرگ‌تر و خطای کوچک‌تر، برای برآورد وزن لاشریزه و شاخص سطح برگ نسبت به سایر مشخصه‌های آلومتریک مناسب‌تر هستند. مدل‌های توده راش- ممرز نسبت به مدل‌های گونه راش و ممرز از خطای کمتری برخوردار بودند و دقت مدل‌های گونه ممرز خیلی کمتر از راش بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Measurement and modelling litter biomass and leaf area index using allometry in a Beech-Hornbeam stand in the mid-elevation of the Hyrcanian region, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ramin Rahmani 1
  • Somayyeh Ghorbani 2
  • Masoumeh Naghash Zargaran 2
1 Associate Professor, Department of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Faculty of Forest Sciences, ‎Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, I.R. Iran.‎
2 M.Sc. of forestry, Department of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Gorgan University of ‎Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, I.R. Iran.‎
چکیده [English]

Litter biomass and leaf area index (LAI) are two important attributes which play crucial roles on the biological processes which impact forest productivity, including photosynthesis, water and nutrient cycles. Litter biomass of a Beech-Hornbeam stand located at the mid-elevation of the Hyrcanian region (Forest management plan of Neka-Zalemroud, district five) was measured using 27 litter traps in a one-year period. In addition, LAI was determined by means of gravimetric method, applying a leaf area meter as well as a metal pipe cutter. A regression model was parameterized to predict the values of litter biomass and LAI using a set of allometric parameters including density, basal surface area, trunk volume, and crown area / volume. Total litter biomass and leaf biomass were determined to be 5.472 and 3.707 ton per hectare per year, respectively. Mean LAI was measured to be 7.5, and 7.7 using leaf area meter, and metal pipe cutter, respectively. The analysis shows that area and volume of crown presents a greater coefficient of determination and smaller root mean squared error than other allometric parameters, indicating the best predictors regarding litter biomass and LAI. Stand-specific models of Beech-Hornbeam were detected more robust than species-specific models of Beech and Hornbeam. Furthermore, species-specific models of Hornbeam were significantly less robust than those specified for Beech.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Allometric parameters
  • crown cover
  • Gravimetric method
  • Specific leaf area
  • leaf litter
  • Dry weight
- Adl, H.R. 1994. Estimation of leaf biomass and leaf area index of two major species in Yasuj forests. MSc Dissertation, Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, Tehran University, Karadj, 79p (In Persian).

- Adl, H.R. 2007. Estimation of leaf biomass and leaf area index of two major species in Yasuj forests. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 15(4): 417–426 (In Persian).

- Anonymous, 1995. Forestry plan of Neka-Zalemroud (Fifth District). Forests and Range Organization, Mazandaran Natural Resources Administration Office, 250p (In Persian).

- Anonymous, 1997. A synthesis report of studies on the water resources of the river basins of Mazandaran province: Vol. 3, Analysis of data and water bills, Meteorology section. Research Center of Water Resources, Ministry of Energy, 285p (In Persian).

- Asner, G.P., Scurlock, J.M.O. and Hicke, J.A. 2003. Global synthesis of leaf area index observations: Implications for ecological and remote sensing studies. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 12(3): 191–205.

- Barclay, H.J. 1998. Conversion of total leaf area to projected leaf area in lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir. Tree Physiology, 18(3): 185–193.

- Barnes, B.V., Zak, D.R., Denton, S.R. and Spurr, S.H. 1997. Forest ecology, 4th Edition. John Wiley and Sons, 774p.

- Bonan, G.B. 2002. Ecological climatology: Concepts and applications. CambridgeUniversity Press, New York, 678p.

- Bussotti, F., Grossoni, P. and Bottacci, A. 1997. Sclerophylly in beech Fagus sylvatica L. trees its relationship with crown transparency, nutritional status and summer drought. Forestry, 70(3): 267–271.

- Chen, J.M., Rich, P.M., Gower, S.T., Norman, J.M. and Plummer, S. 1997. Leaf area index of boreal forests: Theory, techniques, and measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 102(D24): 29429–29443.

- Cutini, A., Matteucci, G. and Mugnozza, G.S. 1998. Estimation of leaf area index with the Li-Cor LAI-2000 in deciduous forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 105(1–3): 55–65.

- Ellenberg, H. 1978. Vegetation Mitteleuropas mit den Alpen in ökologischer sicht, 2nd edition. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart, Germany, 982p (In Germany).

- Fassnacht, K.S., Gower, S.T., Norman, J.M. and McMurtrie, R.E. 1994. A comparison of optical and direct methods for estimating foliage surface area index in forests. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 71(1–2): 183–207.

- Gower, T., Kucharik, C.J. and Norman, J.M. 1999. Direct and indirect estimation of leaf area index, fAPAR, and net primary production of terrestrial ecosystems. Remote Sensing of Environment, 70(1): 29–51.

- Jonckheere, I., Fleck, S., Nackaerts, K., Muysa, B., Coppin, P., Weiss, M. and Baret, F. 2004. Review of methods for in situ leaf area index determination: Part I. Theories, sensors and hemispherical photography. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 121(1–2): 19–35.

- Karlik, J. and Winer, A.M. 1999. Comparison of calculated and measured leaf masses of urban trees. Ecological Applications, 9(4): 1168–1176.

- Karlik, J. and Winer, A.M. 2001. Measured isoprene emission rates of plants in California landscapes: Comparison to estimates from taxonomic relationships. Atmospheric Environment, 35(6): 1123–1131.

- Karlik, J.F. and McKay, A.H. 2002. Leaf area index, leaf mass density, and allometric relationships derived from harvest of blue oaks in a California oak savanna. USDAForest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW–GTR–184, 719–729.

- Maruyama, K. 1977. Beech forests in the NaebaMountains: Part I. Comparison of forest structure, biomass and net productivity between the upper and lower parts of beech forest zone: 186–201. In: Shidei, T. and Kira, T., (Eds.). Primary productivity of Japanese forests, JIBP Synthesis, Vol 16. University Press, Tokyo, 289p.

- McPherson, E.G. and Rowntree, R.A. 1988. Geometric solids for simulation of tree crowns. Landscape and Urban Planning, 15: 79-83.

- McShane, M.C., Carlile, D.W. and Hinds, W.T. 1983. The effect of collector size on forest litter fall collection and analysis. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 13(6): 1037–1042.

- McWilliam, A.L.C., Roberts, J.M., Cabral, O.M.R., Leitao, M.V.B.R., Decosta, A.C.L., Maitelli, G.T. and Zamparoni, C.A.G.P. 1993. Leaf area index and above-ground biomass of terra-firme rain forest and adjacent clearings in Amazonia. Functional Ecology, 7(3): 310–17.

- Miller, P.R. and Winer, A.M. 1984. Composition and dominance in Los AngelesBasin urban vegetation. Urban Ecology, 8(1–2): 29–54.

- Mirakhorlou, Kh. and Akhavan, R. 2008. Investigation on boundary changes of northern forests of Iran using remotely sensed data. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 16(1): 139–148 (In Persian).

- Morrison, I.K. 1991. Effect of trap dimensions on litter fall collected in an Acer saccharum stand in northern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 21(6): 939–941.

- Naghash Zargaran, M. 2001. Foliage biomass, leaf area index and their relationships to some characteristics of forest stand and soil in permanent plot located in mid-elevation of Caspian forests. MSc, Dissertation, Department of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, 67p (In Persian).

- Neumann, H.H., Den Hartog, G.D. and Shaw, R.H. 1989. Leaf-area measurements based on hemispheric photographs and leaf-litter collection in a deciduous forest during autumn leaf-fall. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 45(3–4): 325–345.

- Ogino, K. 1977. A beech forest at Ashiu - biomass, its increment and net production: 172–186. In: Shidei, T. and Kira, T., (Eds.). Primary productivity of Japanese forests, JIBP Synthesis, Vol 16. University Press, Tokyo, 289p.

- Olson, J.S. 1963. Energy storage and the balance of producers and decomposers in ecological systems. Ecology, 44(2): 322–330.

- Parton, W.J., McKeown, R., Kirshner, V. and Ojima, D. 1992. Century users’ manual. Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, ColoradoStateUniversity, NREL publication, Colorado, USA, 100p.

- Pedersen, L.B. and Bille-Hansen, J. 1999. A comparison of litterfall and element fluxes in even aged Norway spruce, Sitka spruce and beech stands in Denmark. Forest Ecology and Management, 114(1): 55–70.

- Potter, C., Bubier, J., Crill, P. and Lafleur, P. 2001. Ecosystem modeling of methane and carbon dioxide fluxes for boreal forest sites. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 31(2): 208–223.

- Sagheb-Talebi, Kh., Jashni, J., Mohammadnejad Kiasari, Sh., Mohammadi Nasrabadi, H. and Paydar, M. 2012. Light regime in natural and planted stands of the Caspian Forests. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 20(1): 165–181 (In Persian).

- Schulze, E.D. 1982. Plant life forms and their carbon, water, and nutrient relations: 615–676. In: Lange, O.L., Nobel, P.S., Osmond, C.B. and Ziegler, H., (Eds.). Physiological plant ecology II: Water relations and carbon assimilation. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 747p.

- Scurlock, J.M.O., Asner, G.P. and Gower, S.T. 2001a. Worldwide historical estimates of leaf area index, 1932–2000. ORNL Technical Memorandum ORNL/TM-2001/268, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, p23.

- Scurlock, J.M.O., Asner, G.P. and Gower, S.T. 2001b. Global leaf area index data from field measurements, 1932–2000: Data set. Available from: http://www.daac.ornl.gov. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed ActiveArchiveCenter, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.

- Tobin, B., Black, K., Osborne, B., Reidy, B., Bolger, T. and Nieuwenhuis, M. 2006. Assessment of allometric algorithms for estimating leaf biomass, leaf area index and litter fall in different-aged Sitka spruce forests. Forestry, 79(4): 453–465.

- Turner, D.P., Acker, S.A., Means, J.E. and Garmen, S.L. 2000. Assessing alternative allometric algorithms for estimating leaf area of Douglas-fir trees and stands. Forest Ecology and Management, 126(1): 61–76.