بررسی فعالیت آنزیم‌ها و ویژگی‌‌های فیزیکوشیمیایی خاک در رویشگاه‌ کهور ایرانی (Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce) و سمر (.P. juliflora (SW.) DC)

نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی


1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم زیستی جنگل، دانشکده علوم جنگل، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

2 نویسنده مسئول، دانشیار، گروه جنگل‌شناسی و اکولوژی جنگل، دانشکده علوم جنگل، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

3 دانشیار، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

4 استادیار، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران


باتوجه‌به دشواری حفاظت و احیای مناطق خشک و بیابانی، ارزیابی تغییرات ناشی از ورود گونه‌های غیربومی به این بوم‌سازگان‌های شکننده بسیار مهم است. با بررسی ویژگی‌‌های فیزیکی، شیمیایی و زیستی خاک به‌‌عنوان پایه بوم‌سازگان می‌توان اثر ورود و استقرار گونه‌های غیربومی را ارزیابی کرد. در پژوهش پیش‌رو، اثرات کهور ایرانی (Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce) و سمر (P. juliflora (SW.) DC.) به‌عنوان دو گونه مهم ناحیه رویشی صحارا- سندی بر خاک رویشگاه‌ شهرستان عسلویه در استان بوشهر بررسی و مقایسه شدند. بدین‌منظور، فعالیت آنزیم‌‌های فسفاتاز اسیدی و قلیایی، اوره‌‌آز، دهیدروژناز و اینورتاز در رابطه با برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیکوشیمیایی خاک (رطوبت اشباع، کربن آلی، نیتروژن کل و فسفر قابل‌جذب) در زیر و بیرون تاج این درختان ارزیابی شد. 24 نمونه خاک از عمق صفر تا 30 سانتی‌‌متر از رویشگاه طبیعی کهور ایرانی و سمر به‌‌روش تصادفی نمونه‌‌برداری شدند. نتایج آنالیز آماری با استفاده از طرح کرت‌های خردشده نشان داد که اثر موقعیت نمونه‌‌برداری بر فعالیت همه آنزیم‌‌های‌‌ مورد مطالعه در سطح اطمینان حداقل 95 درصد معنی‌‌دار است. به‌طوری‌که این آنزیم‌ها در خاک زیر تاج‌‌ درختان نمونه، فعالیت بیشتری ‌نسبت به بیرون تاج داشتند. فعالیت آنزیم‌‌های مورد مطالعه در زیر تاج درختان کهور ایرانی، تفاوت معنی‌داری با سمر نشان نداد. اثرات متقابل گونه و موقعیت نمونه‌‌برداری فقط بر آنزیم‌‌ فسفاتاز قلیایی معنی‌دار بودند (01/0p<). به‌طورکلی سمر، اثرات نامطلوبی بر فعالیت آنزیم‌‌های خاک نداشت. به‌‌نظر می‌‌رسد که با اعمال مدیریت علمی و صحیح، این گونه تندرشد می‌‌تواند همراه با گونه بومی کهور ایرانی در برنامه‌‌های بیابان­زدایی و احیای جنگل‌‌های ناحیه رویشی صحارا- سندی در منطقه عسلویه مورد توجه قرار گیرد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the enzyme activities and physicochemical properties of soil in the habitat of Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce and P. juliflora (SW.) DC.

نویسندگان [English]

  • T. Alizadeh 1
  • H. Habashi 2
  • M. Matinizadeh 3
  • S.M. Sadeghi 4
1 Ph.D. Student of Biology Forest Sciences, Faculty of Forest Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
2 Corresponding author, Associate Prof., Faculty of Forest Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
3 Associate Prof., Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
4 Assistant Prof., Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Changes due to the introduction of non-native species are very important, especially in arid and desert areas. Because protection and regeneration in these fragile ecosystems are difficult. Soil is the basis of ecosystems. The effect of introduction and establishment of non-native species can be evaluated by sensitive indicators such as soil enzyme activities. The activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase, urease, dehydrogenase, and invertase enzymes were investigated as well as soil physicochemical properties (the percentage of soil moisture, organic carbon, total nitrogen and available phosphorus) under and outside the canopy of Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce and P. juliflora (SW.) DC.). Soil sampling (in total, 24 samples) was done randomly from a depth of 0-30 cm in a natural habitat of the two species located in Assaluyeh, Bushehr province, Iran. The statistical analysis showed the sampling location had a significant effect on activities of the all studied enzymes (p< at least 0.05). These enzymes were more active under the canopy of the sample trees. Under the canopy of P. juliflora, enzyme activities did not differ significantly from that of P. cineraria. The interaction of species and sampling location was only significant in alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity (p<0.01). Due to the lack of harmful effects of P. juliflora as a non-native species on soil enzymes activities and also it's a very fast growth, it seems that with the application of scientific and correct management, P. juliflora in de-desertification and forest regeneration programs in Sahara-Sindhi habitats in Assaluyeh should be noticed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Assaluyeh
  • native species
  • non-native species
  • Sahara-Sindhi
  • soil biology properties
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