تأثیر بستر کاشت، دور آبیاری، مبدأ بذر، پوشش بذر و تاریخ کاشت بر جوانه‌زنی بذر کاج سیاه (پژوهش موردی: نهالستان دارلک مهاباد)

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد جنگلداری، دانشگاه ارومیه

2 استادیار، دانشگاه ارومیه

3 دانشجوی دکتری جنگلداری، دانشگاه گیلان

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف بررسی تأثیر تیمارهای بستر کاشت، دور آبیاری، مبدأ بذر، پوشش بذر و تاریخ کاشت بر رویش بذرهای کاج سیاه (Pinus nigra Arnold) در نهالستان دارلک مهاباد انجام شد. بدین‌منظور از طرح آزمایشی فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کامل تصادفی با پنج تیمار، شامل بستر کاشت در چهار سطح (تیمار شاهد: خاک 1: کود دامی 1: شن 1؛ تیمار یک: خاک 1: کود دامی 1: شن 2؛ تیمار دو: خاک 1: کود دامی 1: شن 4 و تیمار سه: شن)، دور آبیاری در سه سطح (هر روز، هر دو روز یکبار و هر سه روز یکبار)، مبدأ بذر در پنج سطح (ارومیه، بیرجند، ترکیه، کلاردشت و گرگان)، پوشش بذر در دو سطح (شن و خاک‌اره) و تاریخ کاشت در دو سطح (بهمن و اسفند) و در پنج تکرار استفاده شد. در طول دوره‌ رویش، صفات جوانه‌زنی مورد اندازه‌گیری‌ قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که بهترین صفات جوانه‌زنی بذرهای کاج سیاه در بستر شنی (تیمار سه) و توسط بذرهایی با مبدأ کلاردشت و ارومیه بوده است و سایر تیمارها اثر معنی‌داری بر جوانه‌زنی بذرهای کاج سیاه نداشتند. همچنین اثرات متقابل بین تیمارها نشان داد که بستر کاشت و مبدأ بذر اثرگذارترین عامل‌ها در میان این پنج تیمار بوده‌اند. براساس نتایج، پیشنهاد می‌‌شود برای بهبود رشد و میزان عملکرد تولید نهال کاج سیاه، ترجیحاً از بستر شنی و بذرهای با مبدأ کلاردشت و ارومیه در نهالستان دارلک مهاباد استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of sowing bed, irrigation period, seed provenance, seed cover and Effect of sowing bed, irrigation period, seed provenance, seed cover and sowing date on germination rate of Black pine seeds. Case study: Darlak nursery, Mahabad.

نویسندگان [English]

  • Forugh Bahmani 1
  • Abbas Banj Shafiei 2
  • Javad Eshaghi Rad 2
  • Majid Pato 3
1 M. Sc. Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, I.R. Iran
2 Assistant Prof., Faculty of Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, I.R. Iran.
3 Ph. D. Student of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Rasht, I.R. Iran.
چکیده [English]

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of sowing bed, irrigation period, seed provenance, seed cover, and sowing date treatments on Black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) seeds in Mahabad’s Darlak nursery. To achieve this goal,  a factorial design in a completely randomized pattern with 5 treatments was established, which included 4 levels of sowing bed (Control: “soil 1: manure 1: sand 1”, Treatment 1: “soil 1: manure 1: sand 2”, Treatment 2: “soil 1: manure 1: sand 4”, and Treatments 3: “sand”), 3 levels of irrigation period (every day, every 2 days, every 3 days), 5 levels of seed provenance (Urmia, Birjand, Kelardasht, Gorgan and Turkey),  2 levels of seed cover (sand and sawdust) and 2 levels of sowing date (February and March) each in 5 replications. In this design, the germination characteristics were measured during the growing season. The results showed that the best germinative characteristics of Black pine’s seeds can be achieved in the sand bed (treatment 3) by sowing seeds from Kelardasht and Urmia provenances. However, other treatments did not show any significant effect on seed germination. Furthermore, the interactions between treatments showed that the sowing bed and seed provenance were the most influential factors among the 5 treatments. The use of sand bed and seeds with Urmia and Kelardasht origins is therefore suggested to be preferred in Darlak nursery of Mahabad to ensure an improved growth and quality of Black pine seedlings.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • germination
  • black pine
  • sowing treatments
  • nursery
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