ارزیابی اثرات محیط‌زیستی پروژه‌های گردشگری جنگل با روش اصلاح‌شده RIAM (مطالعه موردی: پارک جنگلی ارغوان، استان ایلام)

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع ‌طبیعی استان ایلام، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ایلام، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه جنگل‌داری، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران

چکیده

مدیریت بهینه جنگل مستلزم استفاده چندگانه مطابق با اصول پایداری زیست‌بوم‌های طبیعی است. امروزه با افزایش روزافزون تقاضا برای گردشگری جنگل، پژوهش درزمینه ارزیابی اثرات محیط‌زیستی توسعه این کاربری ضروری است. در پژوهش پیش‌‌رو، اثرات محیط‌زیستی دو گزینه‌ اجرا (دو فاز ساختمانی و بهره‌برداری) و عدم اجرای پروژه گردشگری پارک جنگلی ارغوان واقع در بخش زاگرسی استان ایلام با استفاده از روش RIAM اصلاح‌شده در چهار محیط بیولوژیکی- بوم‌شناختی، فیزیکی- شیمیایی، اجتماعی- فرهنگی و اقتصادی- عملکردی ارزیابی شد. اصلاح انجام‌شده در روش RIAM شامل استفاده از منطق فازی و فرآیند تحلیل شبکه‌ای (ANP) در اولویت‌بندی معیارهای ارزیابی بود. نتایج نشان داد که مقدار شاخص ارزیابی روش مرسوم در هر دو گزینه اجرا و عدم اجرای پروژه مثبت بود، اما مقدار آن در گزینه اجرا حدود دوبرابر گزینه عدم اجرا به‌دست آمد. همچنین، نتیجه مقایسه شاخص ارزیابی روش اصلاحی نسبت به ‌روش معمول حاکی از کاهشی ناچیز (حدود شش درصد) در گزینه اجرا و کاهشی قابل‌ توجه (حدود 115 درصد) در گزینه عدم اجرا بود. براین‌اساس، نتایج ارزیابی با فرض رعایت پیش‌فرض‌های اجرایی بیانگر آثار مثبت بیشتر در گزینه اجرای پروژه بود. اگرچه تحلیل نتایج روش اصلاحی به پژوهش‌های تکمیلی بیشتری نیاز دارد، اما به‌دلایل ذهنی بودن ماهیت ارزیابی، وجود خطا در سنجش معیارها، عدم قطعیت در پیش‌بینی اثرات و روابط داخلی زیاد بین عناصر ارزیابی، استفاده از منطق فازی و ANP در راستای بهبود نتایج ارزیابی اثرات محیط‌زیستی ضروری به‌نظر می‌رسد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the environmental impacts of forest tourism projects using an improved rapid impact assessment matrix method (Case Study: Arghavan forest park, Ilam Province, Iran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Najafifar 1
  • Abdolali Karamshahi 2
1 Assistant Prof., Research Division of Natural Resources, Ilam Agricultural and Natural Resources Research & Education Center, AREEO, Ilam, Iran
2 Associate Prof., Department of Forestry, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran
چکیده [English]

Optimal forest management implies multiple uses in accordance with the principles of sustainability in natural ecosystems. Due to the ever-increasing demand for forest tourism in recent years, further research is required in terms of the environmental impact assessment. In this research, the environmental aspects of two implementation scenarios (two construction phases and exploitation) as well as non-implementation of the Arghavan forest park project were evaluated using an improved RIAM method in biological-ecological, physical-chemical, social-cultural and economic-functional aspects in the Ilam province within the Zagros region. Improving the RIAM method involves the use of fuzzy logic and network analysis (ANP) to prioritize evaluation criteria. The results showed that while the evaluation index in the conventional method was positive in both implementation and non-implementation of the project, its magnitude in the implementation option was almost doubled compared with the non-implementation option. The result of comparing the evaluation index of the improved method with that of the initial method showed a minor reduction (~6%) in the implementation and a significant decrease (~115%) in the non-implementation. Accordingly, assuming compliance with the implementation defaults, the evaluation revealed the most positive effects of the project implementation. Although the analysis of the results of the method requires complementary research, the use of fuzzy logic and ANP in improving the environmental impact assessment seems to be necessary due to the subjective nature of the evaluation, criteria measurement error, the uncertainty in predicting the aspects and the complex internal relations between the evaluation elements.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • ANP
  • fuzzy logic
  • RIAM
  • Zagros forests
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