آت‌‌اکولوژی انارشیطان (Tecomella undulata (Roxb.) Seem) در جنوب ایران

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری بیابان‌زدایی، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و کویرشناسی، دانشگاه یزد، یزد، ایران

2 دانشیار، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و کویرشناسی، دانشگاه یزد، یزد، ایران

3 دانشیار، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه جیرفت، جیرفت، ایران

چکیده

در پژوهش پیش‌رو، پس از مشخص کردن محدوده رویشگاه‌‌های درخت انارشیطان (Tecomella undulate (Roxb.) Seem.)درسه استان کرمان، هرمزگان و بوشهر، شش رویشگاه انتخاب شدند. هدف از این پژوهش، تعیین و شناسایی نیازهای بوم‌شناختی، ویژگی‌های جنگل‌‌شناسی، ساختار زمین‌‌شناسی، ویژگی‌های خاک و اقلیمی و تعیین جدول نیازهای بوم‌شناختی گونه مذکور بود. نتایج نشان داد که انارشیطان در نواحی گرم جنوب ایران از نزدیکی ساحل دریا (ارتفاع 10 متری از سطح دریا) در مغدان بوشهر تا ارتفاع 1612 متری از سطح دریا در اسفندقه جیرفت با میانگین بارندگی سالانه 100 تا 200 میلی‌‌متر و درجه‌‌ حرارت سالانه پنج تا 55 درجه سانتیگراد پراکنش داشت. بافت خاک در بیشتر رویشگاه‌‌ها، سبک تا متوسط و شنی تا شنی‌‌- لومی بود. خاک رویشگاه‌‌ها از نظر پتاسیم غنی، اما از نظر نیتروژن و ماده آلی بسیار فقیر بود. میانگین اسیدیته گل اشباع بین 6/72 تا 7/61 و هدایت الکتریکی آن 0/5 میلی‌‌موس بر متر بود که بیشتر بر روی رسوبات دوران کواترنری و ترشیاری حضور داشتند. متوسط تراکم توده‌‌های انارشیطان در شش رویشگاه مورد ‌‌مطالعه، 75 پایه در هکتار، بیشترین ارتفاع 10/2 متر، متوسط قطر تنه 47/35 سانتی‌‌متر و میانگین سطح تاج 9/6 متر مربع محاسبه شد. زمان گل‌دهی در بیشتر رویشگاه‌‌ها از اواخر اسفند‌‌ماه تا نیمه اردیبهشت‌‌ماه بود. زمان رسیدن بذرها در تنها رویشگاه بذرده کشور (دشت‌‌کوچ جیرفت) از ابتدا تا اواخر اردیبهشت‌ماه ثبت شد. تکثیر طبیعی انارشیطان از طریق بذر و ریشه‌‌جوش انجام می‌شود. نتایج این پژوهش اطلاعات سودمندی را در مورد آت‌اکولوژی انارشیطان ارائه داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Autecology of Tecomella undulata (Roxb.) Seem. in southern Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Iraj Amiri 1
  • Hamid Sodaiezade 2
  • Asghar Mosleh Arani 2
  • Javad Taie Semiromi 3
  • Mohammad Ali Hakimzade 2
1 Ph. D. Student of Combating Desertification, Faculty of Natural Resources and Desrt Studies, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
2 Associate Prof., Faculty of Natural Resources and Desrt Studies, University of Yazd, Yazd, Iran
3 Associate Prof., Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study aimed to identify the silvicultural characteristics, geological structure, soil and climatic characteristics, and to form a table for the ecological needs of the Tecomella undulata (Roxb.) Seem.. Six T. undulata habitats in southern Iran were selected following specification of their range of occurrence. The results indicated the distribution of T. undulata in warm and southern Iran, from the coast of Persian Gulf at a height of 10 meters a.s.l in Moqdan (Bushehr) to 1612 meters a.s.l in Esfandaghe (Jiroft). Annual rainfall of the study area is 100 to 200 mm with an average annual temperature of 5 to 50 °C. The habitats had mostly light to moderate and more sandy to loamy sandy soil texture with low water storage capacity. The soil was rich in potassium, yet very poor in nitrogen and organic matter, the average acidity of saturated sand was 7 to 8 and its conductivity was 0.5 mm/m, which predominantly lie on sediments of the Quaternary and Tertiary periods. The average density of T. undulata per ha in the six habitats was 75. In addition, results showed the maximum height of 10.2 m and the mean diameter of 47.35 cm. The mean canopy area was 13.2 m2 (ranging between 1 and 20.5 m2). The flowering stage of T. undulata species usually starts in late march to the middle of May. Furthermore, seed ripening occurs in late June and early May in the habitats associated with the best acorn production (Dasht-e kooch- Jiroft).  Natural propagation of T. undulata is carried out through the seeds and roots sprouts. The results of this study provided useful information about autecology of T. undulata.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Natural regeneration
  • phenology
  • Saharo-sindian
  • seed maturation
  • soil texture
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