ویژگی‌های کمی و ساختار گونه‌‌های درختی در دو وضعیت متفاوت حفاظتی در جنگل‌های ارسباران

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه جنگل‌داری، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اهر، دانشگاه تبریز، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و کویرشناسی، دانشگاه یزد، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه جنگل‌داری و اقتصاد جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

چکیده

DOR: 98.1000/1735-0883.1397.26.355.73.3.1608.1606
 
تجزیه و تحلیل ساختار گونه‌‌های درختی، اطلاعات کاملی از ترکیب، اندازه و توزیع مکانی آن‌ها ارائه داده و به درک بسیاری از مسایل بوم‌شناختی و جنگل‌‌شناسی به‌منظور مدیریت بهینه بوم‌سازگان‌‌های جنگلی کمک می‌کند. هدف اصلی این پژوهش، بررسی رویشگاه‌‌های با سابقه حفاظتی متفاوت (کلاله و وایقان با سابقه حفاظت طولانی‌مدت و کورن با سابقه حفاظت کوتاه‌مدت) از نظر ترکیب و ساختار درختان موجود در‌‌ این توده‌‌ها بود. ابتدا 9 هکتار (با قطعه‌‌نمونه‌‌های یک هکتاری) در سه رویشگاه به‌‌روش صددرصد آماربرداری شد. سپس، مشخصه‌‌های گونه، فاصله و آزیموت هر پایه، قطر برابر سینه و ارتفاع درختان اندازه‌‌گیری شدند. تعیین الگوی پراکنش درختان با استفاده از تابع K ریپلی انجام شد. بر اساس نتایج، 14 گونه در سه منطقه مورد مطالعه مشاهده شدند. چهار گونه‌‌ ممرز (68 درصد)، کرب (هشت درصد)، سرخدار (هفت درصد) و اوری (5/2 درصد)، حدود 88 درصد از تراکم درختان موجود در کل منطقه را تشکیل می‌‌دادند. مناطق کلاله و کورن به‌ترتیب بیشترین (15/29 متر مربع) و کمترین (0/26 متر مربع) رویه زمینی را به‌خود اختصاص دادند. رویشگاه‌‌های کلاله و وایقان، دامنه وسیعی از طبقه‌های قطری را در مقایسه با رویشگاه کورن داشتند. بررسی الگوی پراکنش با استفاده از تابع L نشان داد که به ­تقریب تمامی گونه‌‌ها در توده‌‌های مطالعه‌شده، پراکنش کپه‌‌ای داشته و فقط ممرز در رویشگاه کورن پراکنش تصادفی داشت، بنابراین پیشنهاد می‌شود که هر نوع دخالت با هدف اصلاح، احیا و غنی‌‌سازی توده‌های مورد مطالعه با رعایت درصد آمیختگی و حفظ الگوی پراکنش کپه‌‌ای گونه‌‌ها انجام شده و از جنگل‌کاری با گونه خالص خودداری شود تا هم تنوع زیستی و هم پایداری توده‌‌ها تضمین شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Quantitative characteristics and structure of tree species in two different conservation situations in Arasbaran forests

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sajjad Ghanbari 1
  • Gholam Hossein Moradi 2
  • Vahid Nasiri 3
1 Assistant Prof., Department of Forestry, Ahar Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tabriz, Ahar, Iran
2 Assistant Prof., Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Desert Studies, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
3 Ph.D. Student, Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Analysis of the structure of tree species provides a complete information on species diversity, composition, spatial distribution in mixed natural forests. It helps to better understanding of many ecological and silvicultural issues in order to optimal management of the ecosystem. The main objective of this research is to investigate the differences and similarities of sites with different conservation history (Kalale and Vaygan Sites with a long-term conservation history and Kuran Sites with a short-term conservation history) in terms of diversity and composition of the tree structure in Arasbaran forests. For this purpose, nine hectares with one-hectare sample plot were inventoried with full-callipering method. The measured characteristics were type of species, distance and azimuth of each tree from the last tree, diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height. The spatial pattern of trees was determined by the modified K-Ripley function. Based on the results, 14 species were observed in the three study areas. Four species of hornbeam (68 %), maple (8 %), yew (7 %) and persian oak (2.5 %) composed of about 88% of the total density of trees. Kalale site (15.29 m2) and Kuran (0.26 m2) had the highest and lowest basal-area per hectare, respectively. Kalale and Vaygan sites had a wide range of diameter classes in comparison with the Kuran site. L function showed that almost all species had cluster distribution and only hornbeam had a random distribution in Kuran site. Therefore,  every intervention in order to  tending  reclamation  andenrichment of the studied stands should be based on making species mixture and keeping clustered spatial pattern  and also it should be avoided pure species reforestation to ensureboth biodiversity and sustainability of stands.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arasbaran
  • clumped distribution
  • K-Ripley function
  • species composition
- Alavi, S.J., Zahedi Amiri, Gh., Nouri, Z. and Marvi Mohajer, M.R., 2014. Application of Ripley’s K-function in detecting spatial pattern of wych elm species in Kheyrod forests, north of Iran. Journal of and Wood & Forest Science and Technology, 20(4): 21-39 (In Persian).

- Alijanpour, A., Eshaghi Rad, J. and Banej Shafiei, A., 2009a. Comparison of woody plants diversity in protected and non-protected areas of Arasbaran forests. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 17(1): 125-133 (In Persian).

- Alijanpour, A., Eshaghi Rad, J. and Banj Shafiei, A., 2009b. Investigation and comparison of two protected and non-protected forest stands regeneration diversity in Arasbaran. Iranian Journal of Forest, 1(3): 209-217 (In Persian).

- Alijanpour, A., Eshaghi Rad, J. and Banej Shafiei, A., 2011. Effect of physiographical factors on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Cornus mas L. in Arasbaran forests. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 19(3): 396-407 (In Persian).

- Amirghasemi, F., Saghebtalebi, Kh. and Dargahi, D., 2001. The study of natural regenration structure in Arasbaran forest (Sotanchi region). Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 6(1): 1-62 (In Persian).

- Casals, P., Camprodon, J., Caritat, A., Rios, A.I., Guixé, D., Garcia-Martí, X., Martín-Alcón, S. and Coll, L., 2015. Forest structure of Mediterranean yew (Taxus baccata L.) populations and neighbor effects on juvenile yew performance in the NE Iberian Peninsula. Forest Systems, 24(3): 10p.

- Devaney, J.L., Jansen, M.A. and Whelan, P.M., 2014. Spatial patterns of natural regeneration in stands of English yew (Taxus baccata L.); Negative neighbourhood effects. Forest Ecology and Management, 321(1): 52-60.

- Dhar, A., Ruprecht, H., Klumpp, R. and Vacik, H., 2007. Comparison of ecological condition and conservation status of English yew population in two Austrian gene conservation forests. Journal of Forestry Research, 18(3): 181-186.

- Dobrowolska, D., Niemczyk, M. and Olszowska, G., 2017. The influence of stand structure on European yew Taxus baccata populations in its natural habitats in central Poland. Polish Journal of Ecology, 65(3): 369-384.

- Ghanbari Sharafeh, A., Marvie Mohajer, M.R. and Zobeiri, M., 2010. Natural regeneration of Yew in Arasbaran forests. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 18(3): 380-389 (In Persian).

- Hou, J.H., Mi, X.C, Liu, C.R. and Ma, K.P., 2004. Spatial patterns and associations in a Quercus-Betula forest in northern China. Journal of Vegetation Science, 15(3): 407-414.

- Jafari Afrapoly, M., Sefidi, K., Waez-Mousavi, S.M. and Varamesh, S., 2018. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of dead trees in English yew (Taxus baccata) in Afratakhteh Forests, Golestan province, and northeastern Hyrcanian forests. Journal of Forest Research and Development, 3(4): 305-316 (In Persian).

- Karimi, M., Pormajidian, M.R, Jalilvand, H. and Safari, A., 2012. Preleminary study for application of O-ring function in determination of small-scale spatial pattern and interaction species (Case study: Bayangan forests, Kermanshah). Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 20(4): 608-621 (In Persian).

- Kint, V., Robert, W.D. and Noël, L., 2004. Evaluation of sampling methods for the estimation of structural indices in forest stands. Ecological Modelling, 180(4): 461-476.

- Luo, Z., Ding, B., Mi, X., Yu, J. and Wu, Y., 2009. Distribution patterns of tree species in an evergreen broadleaved forest in eastern China. Frontiers of Biology in China, 4(4): 531-538.

- Mishra, B.P., Tripathi, O.P., Tripathi, R.S. and Pandey, H.N., 2004. Effects of anthropogenic disturbance on plant diversity and community structure of a sacred grove in Meghalaya, northeast India. Biodiversity & Conservation, 13(2): 421-436.

- Mohammadzadeh, A., Basiry, R., Torahi, A.A., Dadashian, R. and Elahian, M., 2015. Evaluation of biodiversity of plant species in Arasbaran area using non-parametric measures with respect to topographic factor of slope: a case study of aquiferous land of Ilgina and Kaleibar rivers. Journal of Plant Reseraches, 27(4): 728-741 (In Persian).

- Nouri, Z., Zobeiri, M., Feghhi, J. and Marvie Mohadjer, M.R., 2013. An investigation on the forest structure and trees spatial pattern in Fagus orientalis stands of Hyrcanian forests of Iran (Case study: Gorazbon district of Kheyrud forest). Journal of Natural Environment (Iranian Journal of Natural Resources), 66(1): 113-125 (In Persian).

- Pourbabaei, H., Zandi Navgaran, Sh. and Adel, M.N., 2012. Spatial pattern of three oak species in Chenare forest of Marivan, Kordestan. Journal of Natural Environment (Iranian Journal of Natural Resources), 65(3): 329-339 (In Persian).

- Sagheb-Talebi, Kh., Sajedi, T. and Pourhashemi, M., 2014. Forests of Iran; A treasure from the Past, a Hope for the Future. Springer, 152p.

- Salas, C., LeMay, V., Núñez, P., Pacheco, P. and Espinosa, A., 2006. Spatial patterns in an old-growth Nothofagus obliqua forest in south-central Chile. Forest Ecology and Management, 231(1-3): 38-46.

- Shariati Najaf Abadi, H., Soltani, A. Saeidi, Z. and Gorjestani Zadeh, Sh., 2016. Study of spatial distribution of the Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) trees attacked by orchard Ermine (Yponomeuta padella) in Bazoft forests of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. Iranian Journal of Applied Ecology, 14: 39-48 (In Persian).

- Sohrabi, H., 2014. Spatial pattern of woody species in Chartagh forest reserve, Ardal. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 22(1): 27-38 (In Persian).

- Taheri Abkenar, K., Toulabi, N. and Sotoudeh Foumani, B., 2013. A Comparison of silvicultural and growth characteristics of Judas tree (Cercis siliqustrum L.) in sites, Pol-dokhtar and Shineh Lorestan province. Iranian Forest Ecology Journal, 1(1): 16-29 (In Persian).

- Vedel-Sørensen, M., Tovaranonte, J., Bøcher, P.K., Balslev, H. and Barfod, A.S., 2013. Spatial distribution and environmental preferences of 10 economically important forest palms in western South America. Forest Ecology and Management, 307: 284-292.

- Wei-dong, H., Xiu-mei, G., Lin-feng, L. and Chang-yi, L., 2001. Spatial pattern of dominant tree species of the secondary monsoon rain forest in Lianjiang, Guangdong Province. Journal of Forestry Research, 12(2): 101-104.

- Zhang, Y., Jimei, L., Chang, S., Xiang, L. and JianJiang, L., 2012. Spatial distribution pattern of Picea schrenkiana population in the Middle Tianshan Mountains and the relationship with topographic attributes. Journal of Arid Land, 4(4): 457-468.

- Zobeiry, M., 2000. Forest Inventory (Measurment of Tree and Stand). Second edition, University of Tehran Press, 401p (In Persian).