اثر فنوتیپ پایه مادری و دوره آبیاری بر زنده‌مانی و رشد نهال‌های ارس (Juniprus exclesa M. B) در ایستگاه سیراچال

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی پژوهشی، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

2 مربی پژوهشی، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی کشور، تهران، ایران

3 کارشناس پژوهشی،‌ مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی کشور، تهران، ایران

4 دانشیار پژوهش، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی ، تهران، ایران

5 استادیار، گروه جنگل‌داری و اقتصاد جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

چکیده

جنس ارس (Juniperus) در ایران از نظر گستره پراکنش پس از بنه رتبه دوم را در میان گونه‎های درختی به‌خود اختصاص می‌­دهد. وسعت رویشگاه‌­های ارس به‌دلیل زاد­آوری طبیعی محدود آن در حال کاهش است، بنابراین احیای رویشگاه­‌های آن از اهمیت زیادی برخوردار است. در این پژوهش، اثر فنوتیپ پایه مادری و دوره آبیاری بر زنده‌­مانی و مشخصه‌های رویشی نهال‌های ارس در ایستگاه سیراچال به مدت چهار سال مطالعه شد. بیست نهال تولید شده از سه گروه از درختان با فنوتیپ پایه مادری A (تنه صاف)، B (تنه خمیده) و C (توان بذردهی زیاد) در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی و به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در سه تکرار در سال 1389 کاشته شدند. تیمار آبیاری نهال­‌ها در چهار سطح شاهد (بدون آبیاری)، 15 روز یک‌بار (6 نوبت در سال)، 30 روز یک‌بار (سه نوبت در سال) و 45 روز یک‌بار (دو نوبت در سال) در سال اول پس از کاشت اعمال شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها نشان داد که در سال اول، تأثیر تیمار آبیاری بر متغیرهای رویش جاری قطر، ارتفاع و سطح تاج و تیمار فنوتیپ پایه مادری فقط بر رویش جاری قطر معنی‌دار بود. در سال دوم نیز فقط اثر فنوتیپ پایه مادری برسطح تاج معنی­‌دار بود. در مجموع پس از گذشت چهار سال، فقط اثر تیمار آبیاری بر سطح تاج معنی­‌دار بود. یافته­‌ها نشان داد که یک نوبت آبیاری در زمان کاشت به‌عنوان یک ضرورت مهم در استقرار نهال­‌های ارس است و در احیای رویشگاه‌­ها باید مورد توجه قرار گیرد. با توجه به نتایج به‌نظر می­‌رسد، نوع درخت مادری نیز در احیای رویشگاه تأثیرگذار بوده و انتخاب بذر از درختان گروه C می­‌تواند در موفقیت برنامه احیای رویشگاه­ سیراچال مؤثر باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of maternal tree phenotype and irrigation on survival and growth of Greek juniper (Juniperus excelsa M. B.) seedlings in Sirachal research station

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mostafa Khoshnevis 1
  • Maryam Teimouri 2
  • Mohammad Hosein Sadeghzadeh Hallaj 3
  • Mohammad Matinizadeh 4
  • Anoushirvan Shirvany 5
1 Senior Research Expert, Research institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
2 Senior Research Expert, Research institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
3 Research Expert, Research institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
4 Associate Prof., Research institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
5 Assistant Prof., Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

The Juniperus habitat has the second most natural distribution in Iran after the pistachio. The habitat area of Junipers has decreased due to its low rate of natural regeneration which makes the rehabilitation of this species very important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maternal treemorphology and irrigation on survival and growth parameters of Greek juniper (J. excelsa M. B.) in Sirachal research station in a four years period. Twenty produced seedlings from three different maternal treemorphology including A (cylindrical), B (non-cylindrical) and C (high production of seed) were planted in Sirachal research station as complete random blocks in split plots with three replications in 2010. Seedlings were irrigated every fifteen, thirty and forty days in the first year. Controls were not irrigated. Statistical analysis showed that in the first year, the effect of irrigation was significant on growth parameters including current diameter growth, current height growth and crown cover. The effect of maternal treemorphology was significant only on current diameter growth in the first year. In the second year, only the effect of maternal treemorphology was significant on crown cover. After four years of measurement, the effect of irrigation was significant on crown cover. According to our finding, it seems, irrigation for one time in planting time, is an important necessity for Juniper establishment and should be concerned in rehabilitation of habitats.  In addition, due to the effects of maternal treemorphology on seedlings survival, establishment and growth, using trees with C morphology will be effective in juniperus rehabilitation habitat.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Current diameter growth
  • establishment
  • growth monitoring
  • survival
- Akbarzadeh, M., 1995. Plant cover map in Sirachal research station by floristic and physionomic methods.  Published by Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, 71p (In Persian).

- Alrababah, M.A., Bani-Hani, M.G., Alhamad, M.N. and Bataineh, M.M., 2008. Boosting seedling survival and growth under semi-arid Mediterranean conditions: selecting appropriate species under rained and wastewater irrigation. Arid Environments, 72: 1606-1612.

- Bjugstad, A.J., 1984. Shrub and tree establishment on coal spoils in northern high plains, USA. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 6(3): 127-130.

- Demel, A. and Teketay, l., 1997. Seedling population and regeneration of woody species in dry Aformontane forest of Ethiopia. Forest Ecology and Management, 98(2): 149-165.

- Gardner, A.S. and Fisher, M., 1994. How the forest lost its trees: just so storytelling about Juniperus excelsa in Arabia. Journal of Arid Environments, 26: 299-301.

- Gürlevik, N. and Deligoz, A., 2014. Effects of irrigation and fertilization on the growth of juniper seedlings. Austrian Journal of Forest Science, 131(3): 171-190.

- Hemming, F.L.S., 1966. The vegetation of the northern region of the Somali Republic. Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of London, 17(2): 173-250.

- Jimenez, M.N., Navarro, F.B., Ripoll, M., Bocio, I. and Simon, E., 2005. Effect of shelter tubes on establishment and growth of Juniperus thurifera L. (Cupressaceae) seedlings in Mediterranean semi-arid environment. Annals of Forests Science, 62: 717-725.

- Khosrojerdi, A., Doriud, H. and Namdoust, T., 2008. The effect of nurse crop and direction on survival and of growth Juniperus excelsa in Hezarmasjed forests. Iranian Journal of Biology, 21(5): 760-768 (In Persian).

- Korori, S. and Khoshnevis, M., 2001. Ecological and environmental studies of Iranian Juniper habitats. Published by Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, 208p (In Persian).

- Lichter, J., 2000. Colonization constraints during primary succession on coastal Lake Michigan sand dunes. Journal of Ecology, 88: 825-839.

- Maschinscki, J.J.F., Baggs, S. and Sacchi, C.F., 2004. Seedling recruitment and survival of an endangered limestone endemic in its natural habitat and experimental reintroduction sites. American Journal of Botany, 91: 689-698.

- Matice, C.R., 1982. Comparative performance of paper pot and bare root trees in experiments established in northern Ontario from 1977-1980. Silviculture prescriptions project No. 585044, Published by Matcam Forestry Consultants Inc., Sault Ste. Marie, 147p.

- Otto, H.J., 1994.  Waldökologie. Verlag Eugen Ulmer Press, Stuttgart, 391p.

- Rose, R., Carlson, W.C. and Morgan, P., 1990.  The target seedling concept (Chapter 1): 1-8. In: Rose, R., Campbell, S.J. and Landis, T.D. (Eds.). Target Seedling Symposium: Proceedings, Combined Meeting of the Western Forest Nursery Associations. General Technical Report, Published by US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Roseburg, Oregon, 13-17 Aug. 1990, 286p.

- Scagel, R., Bowden, R., Madill, M. and Kooistra, C., 1998. Provincial seedling stock type selection and ordering guidelines. Published by British Colombia Ministry of Forests, Victoria, British Colombia, 71p.

- Schwan, T., 1994. Planting depth and its influence on survival and growth, a literature review with emphasis on Jack pine, black spruce and white spruce. Technical Report TR-017, Northeast Science& Technology, Toronto, 35p.

- Tabari, M. and Shirzad, M.A., 2012. Growth characteristics of rainfed/irrigated Juniperus excelsa planted in an arid area at North-Eastern Iran: 161-168 In: LEE, T.S. (Ed.), Water Quality, Soil and Managing Irrigation of Crops. Available at: www.intechopen.com/books/water-quality-soil-and-managing-irrigation-of-crops/growth-characteristics-ofrainfed-irrigated-juniperus-excelsa-planted-in-an-arid-area-at-north-east.

- Van Auken, O.W., Jackson, J.T. and Jurena, P.N., 2004. Survival and growth of Juniperus seedlings in Juniperus woodlands. Plant Ecology, 175: 245-257

- Weaver, J.A. and Jurena, P.N., 2008. Response of newly established Juniperus ashei and Carex planostachys plants to barrier-induced water restriction in surface soil. Journal of Arid Environments, 73: 267-272.