نیاز آبی و کارایی مصرف آب در دو گونه اکالیپتوس (Eucalyptus flocktoniae (Maiden) Maiden, E. leucoxylon F. Muell)

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان یزد، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، یزد، ایران

2 استاد پژوهش، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

3 کارشناس پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان یزد، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، یزد، ایران

چکیده

پاسخ گیاهان به مقدار آب در دسترس برای تدوین برنامه­‌های مربوط به مدیریت منابع آب و آبیاری از اهمیت زیادی برخوردار است. در این پژوهش، مقدار تبخیر و تعرق، ضریب گیاهی، عملکرد و کارایی مصرف آب در دو گونه اکالیپتوس (Eucalyptus flocktoniae (Maiden) Maiden, E. leucoxylon F. Muell) از طریق آزمایش‌­های لایسیمتری و در شرایط سطوح مختلف تیمارهای رطوبتی (100، 70 و 40 درصد ظرفیت زراعی) بررسی شد. پژوهش در قالب آزمایش فاکتوریل با طرح پایه کاملاً تصادفی و در سه تکرار در شرایط اقلیمی یزد انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که در هر دو گونه با افزایش رطوبت خاک،  مقدار تبخیر و تعرق افزایش یافت و بین سطوح مختلف اختلاف معنی‌­داری مشاهده شد. نیاز آبی E. flocktoniae و E. leucoxylon در شرایط رطوبتی 100 درصد ظرفیت زراعی به‌ترتیب 1185 و 1617 میلی‌­متر و ضریب گیاهی نیز به‌ترتیب 0/65 و 0/88 اندازه­‌گیری شد. مقدار ماده خشک تولیدی در تمامی بخش­‌های گیاه و مقدار کارایی مصرف آب در E. leucoxylon به‌طور معنی‌داری بیشتر از E. flocktoniae بود. کارایی مصرف آب در E. flocktoniae معادل 1/22 گرم بر لیتر و در E. leucoxylon معادل 1/41 گرم بر لیتر اندازه­‌گیری شد. گرچه  E. leucoxylon تندرشد­تر بوده و برای عملکرد بیشتر به آب زیادتری نیاز دارد، با این وجود به‌دلیل به‌کارگیری سازوکارهای مناسب برای سازگاری در شرایط خشک و بهبود کارایی مصرف آب، برای جنگل­‌کاری و تولید چوب در شرایط اقلیمی خشک و نیمه‌خشک قابل توصیه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Water requirement and water use efficiency in Eucalyptus flocktoniae (Maiden) Maiden and E. leucoxylon F. Muell.

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Hadi Rad 1
  • Mohammad Hasan Assareh 2
  • Mehdi Soltani 3
1 Assistant Prof, Research Division of Natural Resources, Yazd Agricultural and Natural Resource Research and Education Center, AREEO, Yazd, Iran
2 Prof., Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
3 Research Expert, Research Division of Natural Resources, Yazd Agricultural and Natural Resource Research and Education Center, AREEO, Yazd, Iran
چکیده [English]

The response of plants to water available for strategy codification of water resources and irrigation is very important. In this study, evapotranspiration, crop coefficient, yield and water use efficiency in two species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus flocktoniae (Maiden) Maiden, E. leucoxylon F. Muell.) through lysimeter experiments were determinated under different soil moisture levels (100%, 70% and 40% of field capacity). The research was designed as a factorial experiment on a completely randomized design with three replications in Yazd climatic conditions. The results showed that with increasing soil moisture in both species, evapotranspiration increased, so that there were significant differences between the different levels of soil moisture treatments (p < 0.001). E. flocktoniae and E. leucoxylon had water requirement in 100% of field capacity treatment, 1185 mm and 1617 mm with 0.65 and 0.88 crop coefficients, respectively. Dry matter produced in all parts and the water use efficiency (WUE) of E. leucoxylon were significantly higher than that of E. flocktoniae, Water use efficiency measured in E. flocktoniae and E. leucoxylon, were 1.22 g/lit and 1.41 g/lit, respectively. Although the growth rate of E. leucoxylon is faster than E. flocktoniae , therefore its water requirement is higher , but considering an appropriate mechanisms for drought adaptation, it could be introduced for afforestation and wood production in arid and semi-arid regions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Evapotranspiration
  • Drought Stress
  • Field capacity
  • yield
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