تأثیر موقعیت مکانی و قطر گونه‌های مختلف درختی بر پوسیدگی تنه ناشی از زخم‌های بهره‌برداری در جنگل‌های ناو اسالم

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه جنگل‌داری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گیلان. صومعه‌سرا، ایران

2 استادیار دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد خلخال، خلخال، ایران

چکیده

یکی از چالش‌های اساسی در مدیریت توده‌های ناهمسال صدمات بهره‌برداری بر درختان باقی‌مانده در جنگل است  که به‌طور معمول با گذشت زمان افزایش می‌یابد. در این پژوهش، فراوانی و حجم پوسیدگی تنه درختان پس از گذشت 15 سال از زمان ایجاد زخم تنه با استفاده از نمونه‌برداری از درختان توده به روش منظم- تصادفی و قطعه‌نمونه‌های 10 آری در جنگل ناو اسالم مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. وضعیت تنه درختان به دو حالت سالم و زخمی و وضعیت زخم‌ها به دو حالت زخم باز و زخم پوسیده ثبت و حجم پوسیدگی تنه با استفاده از رابطه اسمالیان محاسبه شد. نتایج نشان داد که 16/1 درصد از زخم‌ها منجر به پوسیدگی تنه شده بودند. فراوانی و حجم پوسیدگی به‌ترتیب 5/5 اصله و 1/7 متر مکعب در هکتار برآورد شد که 1/96 درصد درختان و 0/72 درصد حجم سرپای جنگل را شامل می‌شد. ضریب‌های فراوانی و حجمی پوسیدگی با توجه به فراوانی صدمات اولیه بهره‌برداری (12/2 درصد) به‌ترتیب 0/16 و 0/06 محاسبه شد. فراوانی پوسیدگی تنه درختان زخمی در ارتباط با گونه، محل زخم، قطر درخت، موقعیت درخت زخمی و جهت شیب زمین بود. همچنین، فراوانی و حجم پوسیدگی در درختان نمدار و بلندمازو بیشتر از سایر گونه‌ها بود. با کاهش ارتفاع زخم‌ها از سطح زمین فراوانی پوسیدگی آن‌ها افزایش یافته بود. فراوانی و حجم پوسیدگی تنه در درختان زخمی قطور بیشتر از درختان زخمی کم‌قطر بود. زخم‌های ایجاد شده بر روی تنه درختان واقع در حاشیه مسیرهای چوبکشی بیشتر از دیگر زخم‌ها پوسیده شده بودند و فراوانی پوسیدگی زخم‌های تنه درختان در شیب‌های شمالی بیشتر از شیب‌های جنوبی بود. درمجموع، به حداقل رساندن صدمات بهره‌برداری بر درختان باقی‌مانده، کاهش شدت بهره‌برداری، افزایش طول دوره بهره‌برداری و برداشت درختان پوسیده در دوره‌های بعدی بهره‌برداری پیشنهاد می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of location and diameter of different tree species on bole decay due to logging wounds in Nav-e Asalem forests, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehrdad Nikooy 1
  • Farzam Tavankar 2
1 Assistant Prof., University of Gilan, Someh Sara, Iran
2 Assistant Prof., Islamic Azad University, Khalkhal Branch, Khalkhal, Iran
چکیده [English]

Logging secondary damages on remained trees are one of the challenges in management of uneven-aged stands which have been less studied in the northern forests of Iran. In this research decay frequency and volume of bole trees after 15 years from wound occurrence were studied through systematic-random sample plots with 1000m2 plots in the Nav-e Asalem forests, Iran. The conditions of trees were registered in two types: safe and wounded, the wounds were registered in two types: open and decayed; and volume of decayed bole was calculated by Smalian formula. Results indicated that 16.1% of wounds were led to bole decay. Decay frequency and volume were estimated to 5.5 trees ha-1 and 1.7 m3ha-1, respectively, that includes 1.96% of total trees and 0.72% of total stand volume. Coefficients of decay frequency and volume on the base of frequency of logging primary damage (12.2%) were calculated 0.16 and 0.06, respectively. Decay frequency of wounded trees bole were related with tree species, wound location, diameter at breast height (DBH), situation of wounded tree in stand, and slope aspect. Decay frequency and volume in the trees of lime and oak were more than other tree species. Decay frequency was increased by decreasing wounds distance from ground. Decay frequency and volume in the high diameter wounded trees were more than low diameter wounded trees. The wounds on the trees in edge of skid trails were more decayed than the other wounds. Decay frequency of wounded trees on the northern aspect slopes were more than the southern aspect slopes. In general, minimizing of primary logging damages, reducing harvest intensity, increasing logging period, and harvesting bole-decayed trees in the next logging periods are suggested. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bole wound
  • Gilan
  • logging damages
  • selection cutting
  • skidding road
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