تأثیر خاک‌اره و سرشاخه درختان در کاهش کوبیدگی خاک مسیرهای چوب‌کشی

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه جنگلداری، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری علوم جنگل، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

کشیدن چوب از کنار کنده تا محل دپو یا کنار جاده‌های جنگلی کامیون‌رومهمترین بخش از عملیات چوب‌کشی زمینی است که با افزایش وزن مخصوص ظاهری خاک همراه است. در این تحقیق به‌منظور کاهش مقدار کوبیدگی خاک مسیرهای چوب‌کشی هنگام تردد اسکیدر چرخ‌لاستیکی تاف E655 در پارسل 29 طرح جنگل‌داری دکتر بهرام‌نیا، از دو تیمار حفاظتی سرشاخه و خاک‌اره با وزن 10 کیلوگرم در هر متر‌مربع استفاده شد. نمونه‌های خاک توسط سیلندر فولادی پس از ترددهای دوم، ششم، دهم و شانزدهم از عمق‌های صفر تا 10 و 10 تا 20 سانتی‌متری قطعه‌نمونه تیمارشده و قطعه‌نمونه بدون تردد (شاهد) تهیه شدند و متغیرهای وزن مخصوص ظاهری، درصد پوکی و درصد رطوبت خاک اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که در عمق صفر تا 10 سانتی‌متری خاک لخت، وزن مخصوص ظاهری خاک در ترددهای دوم، ششم، دهم و شانزدهم به‌ترتیب 1/05، 1/12، 1/18 و 1/2 گرم بر سانتی‌متر مکعب بود. با به‌کارگیری لایه حفاظتی خاک‌اره روی مسیر، مقدار وزن مخصوص ظاهری در ترددهای یادشده به‌ترتیب به 0/98، 1/02، 1/07 و 1/09 گرم بر سانتی‌متر مکعب رسید. این ارقام در تیمار سرشاخه به‌ترتیب 0/94، 0/98، 1/05 و 1/07 گرم بر سانتی‌متر مکعب بود. در عمق 10 تا 20 سانتی‌متری خاک لخت، وزن مخصوص ظاهری برای ترددهای دوم، ششم، دهم و شانزدهم به‌ترتیب 1/31، 1/38، 1/43 و 1/45 گرم بر سانتی‌متر مکعب به‌دست آمد. با به‌کارگیری خاک‌اره مقدار وزن مخصوص ظاهری خاک در ترددهای یادشده به‌ترتیب به 1/22، 1/26، 1/31 و 1/32 گرم بر سانتی‌متر مکعب و با به‌کارگیری سرشاخه به 1/18، 1/21، 1/28 و 1/31 گرم بر سانتی‌متر مکعب رسید که مؤید عملکرد بهتر تیمار سرشاخه در کاهش کوبیدگی خاک بود. همچنین، درصد پوکی خاک مسیرهای تیمار‌شده با سرشاخه در هر دو عمق بیشتر از تیمار خاک‌اره بود و تفاوت معنی‌داری نیز با شرایط طبیعی نداشت. تیمار خاک‌اره بیشتر از تیمار سرشاخه توانست رطوبت خاک مسیرهای چوب‌کشی را حفظ کند. براساس نتایج، استفاده از مصالح پوششی در مسیرهای چوب‌کشی باعث کاهش اثرات مخرب عبور و مرور اسکیدر می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of slash and sawdust on reducing soil compaction on skid trails

نویسندگان [English]

  • Aidin Parsakhoo 1
  • Mohsen Mostafa 2
  • Ali Akbar Mohammad Ali Pourmalekshah 2
1 Assistant Prof., Faculty of Forest Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
2 Ph.D. Student, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Skidding logs from stump to depot areas is the most important part of ground-based logging operations, which often leads to an increase in soil bulk density and decrease in soil porosity. In this study, woody slash and sawdust treatments with a weight of 10 kg m-2 were used to decrease soil compaction on skid trails during the trips of rubber-tired skidder Tof E655 in compartment of 29 in Bahramnia forestry plan in Gorgan, Golestan province. Soil samples were collected by steel cylinder from 0-10 and 10-20 cm soil depths after 2th, 6th, 10th and 16th skiddertrips on treated and control plots. Bulk density, porosity percentage and moisture content were measured in laboratory. Results showed the soil bulk density of 1.05, 1.12, 1.18 and 1.2 g cm-3 at the depth of 0-10 cm in bare soil after two, six, ten and sixteen trips. On trails treated by sawdust protective layer, the soil bulk densities were 0.98, 1.02, 1.07 and 1.09 g cm-3. These values for slash treatment were 0.64, 0.98, 1.05 and 1.07 g cm-3, respectively. The soil bulk densities after two, six, ten and sixteen trips were 1.31, 1.38, 1.43 and 1.45 g cm-3 at the depth of 10-20 cm in bare soil. By using sawdust these values decreased to 1.22, 1.26, 1.31 and 1.32 g cm-3, whereas the use of slash resulted in 1.18, 1.21, 1.28 and 1.31 g cm-3, respectively. The results indicated better performance of slash treatment in reducing soil compaction compared to sawdust treatment. Moreover, soil porosity at the both depths of treated plots by woody slash was more than that of other treatments and was near to forest soil porosity. Furthermore, sawdust treatments could more retain the soil moisture compared to slash treatment. Using coverage material in skid trails was concluded to reduce of destructive effects of skidder transport.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bulk density
  • Porosity
  • rubber-tired skidder
  • soil protective treatments
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