عنوان مقاله [English]
Phenology of Quercus brantii (Lindl.) at Kurdistan Forests of Iran
Phenological characteristics of Q. brantii were investigated at two different sites of Kurdistan Forests (Baneh and Marivan), each at three levels of altitude (1200-1400, 1400-1600, 1600-1800 m. absl) and two aspects (North and South), during 1995-2002. Overall, 10 Plots (1.0 ha), each containing 10 healthy trees were used for recording the phenological parameters. The data were analyzed statistically, using the Minitab computer program. The species phenological characteristics were as follows: Leaf and flower buds opening period: 2nd-4th week of April, the fruits start growing at 3rd-4th week of August and Mature at 1st-2nd week of November, leaves fall at 2nd-4th week of Nov., fruits fall at 3rd-4th week of Nov. The statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences between the phenological characteristics in respect to the different site physiographical characteristics. Furthermore, there were significant negative correlations between average rainfall and average air temperature and three of the phenological characteristics (leaf and flower appearance date and flowering amount). The correlation between average air temperature and leaf mature and fall date and flower or fruit amount was significantly negative.
Keywords: altitude, aspect, flower, fruit, leaf, temperature, rainfall, Phenology, Quercus barantii
Plant species diversity in relation to physiographical factors at Dehsorkh Woodland
Species diversity is an important characteristic of bio-communities. Organisms diversity, diversity measurement and hypothesis test in relation to diversity causes are issues which the ecologists are interested in for long period. The aim of the trial was to study plant species diversity in Dehsorkh woodland at Javanroud, Kermanshah province, Iran. For this reason 300 sampling plots were used from which 60 at 256 m2 and 240 at 2.25 m2 area. At each plot six diversity indices (Shannon's (H), Simpson's reciprocal, Hill's N1, Pielou's (J/), Alatalo's F and Molinari's G) with respect to physiographical factors (slope, aspect and altitude) were investigated. The results showed that species diversity was the greatest at north aspects and slopes less than 30% and there was not significant difference between altitude and species diversity. The correlation between species number and indices analysis at each plot and the tendency and the role of each index at different analysis processes showed that the Simpson's reciprocal index is a best index for such research trials.
Keywords: Diversity, Physiography, Species, aspect, slope, altitude.
Direct and indirect effects of Poplar different attributes on its yield in early growth stage
Direct selection of poplar clones for expanding their plantation is based on yield (wood production) evaluation. Because of limitations in site ecological characteristics which prevent desirable production, this method is not applicable. Therefore, indirect selection by studying other phenotypical characteristics which have well correlation with yield could be useful. The Path test for some of the morphological and growth factors was tested on one to two year old poplar clones seedlings in 2000 and 2001. At each experimental unit, five seedlings were selected to measure their following characteristics. Leaf number, leaf area, total leaf area, length of blade, maximum leaf width, width/length ratio, petiole length, depth of leaf rib, vein number, branch number, branch length, branch diameter, stem diameter, stem diameter/branch diameter, branch angle, height, root number, root length, new leaf number and survival. After a confident result of differences between the species and their clones, for the characters, Path analysis was performed on the data.
The results showed that branch number and branch angle had great direct effects on height as an independent variable. Branch number affected the height directly and negatively at high level, but its indirect effect on height through the dependent variables, was positive. As a result, the total effect on height was negative (-0.554).
Leaf number left high positive effect on height. The branch diameter/stem diameter ratio had the greatest total negative effect on height. As a result, stem diameter had the greatest positive effect on height. Survival had also a great indirect positive effect on height through independent variables, counterbalancing negative direct effects to a positive effect of 0.667. Branch length showed a high negative direct effect, but a high positive indirect effect, resulting a high positive total effect on dependent variable, height. However, total leaf area with positive direct and indirect effects on height, which is in turn the most influential character on height, would be the best indicator of height in the poplar species under study. This would be of high value, particularly when a great number of clones are under investigation at early stages of a cultivation programme.
Key words: Poplar, Path analysis, Morphological attributes, direct and indirect effects.
Estimating forest canopy cover using Landsat7 ETM+ data
The remotely sensed data is one of the most rapid methods for providing thematic maps in natural resources, especially forest. By combining ETM+ data and ground observation data, we can have access to thematic maps of forest such as canopy cover map, that it can be used in forest ecological studies and forest management and improvement.
The research was conducted to evaluate and investigate the possibility of using Landsat7 ETM+ data for developing forest canopy cover density map at four classes in four sites of Caspian Forests of Iran.
Based on OIF index and statistical analysis of the ETM+ data, Color composite 3, 4, 5 were selected for unsupervised and supervised classifications. Ground observation information was collected from 282 plots (150*150m), using unsupervised map as a primary map.
Finally, combining the ETM+ data and the ground information, using supervised classification method, canopy cover map was achieved at four classes (5-30%, 31-50%, 51-80%, 81-100%).
Evaluation of the canopy cover density percentage showed that the overall accuracy of the canopy cover percentage map developed by the Landsat7 ETM+ data and average accuracy, producer's and user's accuracy were: 85.43, 84.7 and 82.68 percent, respectively.
Keywords: Canopy cover, Classification, Satellite data, Training sample, Accuracy assessment, Caspian Forests.
Effects of spacing on yield of various clones
of Populus nigra L.
In order to determine the optimal spacing in respect to maximum wood production in unit area, an experiment was conducted in 1993 at West Paper Industries Co. site (West Iran), using a number of high yield exotic poplars under statistical design of factorial with three replicates. The factors consisted of spacing at four levels (1×2, 2×2, 2×3 and 2×4 m.) and Populus nigra with four clones (exotics: 62/172, 62/154 and 63/135 and native (control): 42/78). Every plot contained 25 seedlings of one year old root and stem. The growth parameters consisted of height, breast height diameter and volume which were measured and recorded annually, up to eight years. The best poplar clones in respect to maximum wood volume production at each spacing treatment were as follows:
1×2 m. spacing: P. nigra 63/135 with 54 m3/ha/y and 11.3 cm DBH
2×2 m. spacing: P. nigra 63/135 with 34.3 m3/ha/y and 13 cm DBH.
2×3 m. spacing: P. nigra 62/154 with 29 m3/ha/y 13.9 cm DBH.
2×4 m. spacing: P. nigra 63/135 with 25 m3/ha/y and 15.2 cm DBH.
Keywords: Poplar, clone, spacing, diameter, height, volume.
Determination of seeding cycle by stem analysis of three beech stands
Three natural stands of beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) at different parts of Caspian Forests of Iran (Kelardasht, Sangdeh and Gorgan) were chosen to determine their seeding cycle by stem analysis. For this reason, 85 dominant trees were selected randomly from the stands. After measuring the tree's quantitative and qualitative properties and sampling soil and vegetation from the stands, the dominant trees were fallen down. A disc (20 cm thick) was removed from base of each fallen tree (cross cut), in order to study the annual rings at two directions, particularly annual diameter increment. After analysing the data, the results were as follows:
1- Two types of seeding were determined for F. orientalis at the three sites: heavy and light seeding.
2- Seeding started at age of 30 to 35 year when seed production is often light.
3- Based on the sites characteristics, the heavy seeding started at age of 60 and extended to ago of 75 year.
4- The trees had different seeding characteristics due to their different site characteristics and their different performance.
5- The light and heavy seeding cycles repeats every 1-3 and 3-9 years, respectively. The difference between the sites was not significant.
6- Natural regeneration of beech is more correlated to light seedling cycle will be due to its more frequency than the heavy seeding cycle.
7- There were three kinds of relationship between annual diameter increment and seeding cycles as follows:
a- If the annual diameter increment is less than 0.74 mm, no seeding cycle will be expected.
b- If the annual diameter increment is between 0.74-1.5 mm, light seeding will be expected, but if its diameter increment is more than 1.5 mm, heavy seeding will be expected.
Key words: Beech, Caspian, Seeding, cycle, Regeneration, Diameter growth, Disc.
Introduction of some of the ecological and silvicultural Characteristics of the forest areas of Kermanshah province
M. Khanhasani1, A. Jalili2, Y. Khodakarami1 and A. Tavakoli3
Climate, plant and soil diversity during ecological development, resulted in complex ecosystems at Zagros zone of Iran. Different forest types diversity from north to south of Zagros, is a good evidence for that case. The importance and the critical role of this ecosystem on economical, social and environmental prospectives of the country, makes it essential to study and investigate the zone comprehensively. However, investigation on relationship between plant cover and the ecological factors which affect the zone, can lead to a better knowledge of the zone.
In vestigation on tree, shrub and grass species autecology at these forest is highly important in order to identify forest distribution of the province according to climate diversity, the climate map (according to the important climate method of de Martonne) was matched with the topographical map of Iran, then controlled by forest walking. The tree, shrub and herb species characteristics and some of the edaphic and topographical parameters were studied using 126 macro plots (500 m2) and 630 micro plots (105 m2), the sampling plots were located on contour lines at loo m. altitude intervals.
Overall, 13 forest sites at six climate types were identified, based on the applied research parameters, dominant slope direction and 1000 m. distance between the sample plots at each contour line, including: Bayangan & Gahvareh with cold humid climate, Islam – Abade – garb, Darbadam and Geomarg with semi – humid cold climate Tazehbad with very humid cold climate, Ghalajeh with semi humid ultra cold climate, Javanrood with 2 climate types; humid temperate and humid cold and finally five sites: Chaharzbar, Harrasam, Sarv -e- no, Sarpole - e - zahab and Qeymas with semi dry cold climate. Moreovoer, it was identified that: The greatest and the lowest density of the tree and shrub species belonged to Harrasam (semi – arid cold climate) and Galajeh (semi – humid ultra – cold climate), respectively.
The highest and the lowest density of the seed origin forests, belonged to Tazeabad (very humid cold climate) and Sarv-e – no (semi – arid cold climate), respectively.
The greatest and the lowest percentage of forest crown cover belonged to humid cold and humid temperate climates of Javanroud, respectively.
Key words: Ecosystem, Zagros forests, Kermanshah, silviculture, Ecology.
Height growth behavior of Poplar clones in Kurdistan
B. Yousefi1 and A. R. Modir-Rahmati2
In this study, saplings of eight poplar clones from six species including (Populustrichocarpa, P. nigra cv. Kamyaran, P.n.56.72, P.deltoides 63.3, P.euramericana 488, P. alba cv. Kabudeh Bumi, P. a cv. Kabudeh Shirazi and P. euphratica)have been evaluated for height growth in Zalleh station of Sanandaj in Kurdistan province. Based on nested design with eight treatments and 10 replicates, the study was carried out in 2001.
The results showed that there was significant difference between the species height performance P.d.63.3 (234.4 cm) and P.euphratica (78.8 cm) greatest had the and the lowest height growth, respectively.
Based on the results, there were three different growing season stages for height growths in poplars, including: 1-primary slow growth stage prior June, 2-fast growth stage during June - September and 3-secondry slow growth stage after September. The daily height growth rate of the poplar clones in mentioned stages were 25.77, 101.57 and 14.52 cm, respectively. P.d.63.3 as a superior clone among the other clones, had low growth at the first and the third stages but very high growth at the second stage. P. Trichocarpa finished the third second stage earlier than the others at July and P.e.488 showed high growth at the first and stages, but low growth at the second stage.
Considering climate condition of Sanandaj in 2001, the studied Poplar clones began the first stage at average daily temperature of 13ºC and average photo radiation period of hour per month (h/m), as well as the second stage at 25 ºC and 370 h/m and the third stage at 10 ºC and 220 h/m.
Key words: Poplar, Populus, clone, Height growth, climate, radiation
Effect of environmental conditions on survival of Capparis decidua seedlings
Gh. R. Damizadeh1
Ripe fruits of Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew.were collected from the species natural habitat in Sirik at Hormozgan Province (June, 2001).
After rubbing and washing the seeds, they were sowed in a nursery in order to test the seeds germination and the seedlings survival. The statistical method was factorial with completely randomized design, consisting of two factors. The first factor was seed treatments which consisted of four levels (12 hours soaking in concentrated sulphuric acid, 45 minutes soaking in concentrated sulphuric acid and full fruit sowing). The second factor was soil mix treatments which consisted of 12 levels (sand, garden soil, clay manure and natural habitat soil). Moreover, correlation between climate parameters (temperature, relative humidity % and monthly evaporation) and edaphic parameters (organic matter %, sand % slit % and clay %) on one hand seedlings survival % on another hand were studied. The results showed that the effects of seed and soil mix treatments on seedling survival were significant (p<0.01) and the best seed treatment was soaking seeds in water s=for 12 hours which resulted in 59.4 % seedling survival. The best soil mix treatments were number, 9(2.3% of sand + 1.3% of garden soil) and number 1(1.2% of sand + 1.2% of garden soil) which resulted in 55.8% ND 51.3% seedling survival, respectively. The effects interactions between the seed and soil mix treatment were not significant the correlation between air temperature, sand % and seedlings survival ^ was positively significant, whereas the correlation between silt %, clay and seedlings survival % was negatively significant (p<0.01).
Keywords: Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew., seed treatment, soil composition, germination, vitality.
Site demands of False walnut (Pterocarya fraxinifolia (Lam.) Spach) in ((Vaz)) Experimental Forest of
E. Ebrahimi1,Kh. Sagheb – Talebi2 and Y. Gorgi - Bahry3
((Vaz)) research forest, one of the most important sites of False walnut in Noor Township and Chamestan District was selected for the study. The distribution areas of False walnut at Vaz forests were marked on a topographical map. False walnut grows usually with other species such as Alder, Persimmom, Caspian poplar, iron wood, mape and hornbeam. with regards to False walnut site condition and its distribution in special parts of the forests, selection of sample plots was not done randomly, but was made manually through recognition of areas, where the False walnut was dominant. The quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the individual trees were measured and recorded within the sample plots with an area of 1000 m2.
The results show that False walnut grows often on clay – deep soils, northern slops of 5 – 10% gradient, altitudes of 500 – 1000 m.a.s.l. and river banks and valley sides with low gradient slope. Vaz forest contains the upper distribution limit of this species in the Caspian region, where it appears up to 1330 m.a.s.l.
Mean stock volume of the studied stands was 415 silve per ha, which 55.6 and 22.9% of it belong to False walnut and Alder species, respectively. In view points of species composition, the False walnut, Persimmom and Alder contributions were 56.4, 14.5 and 8.0%, respectively. The average annual diameter and height growth rate differed at different age stages. For instance, the maximum height growth was at age of 20 year and over 55 year. The False walnut density was 142 stem number per ha, which increased up to diameter class of 35 cm and then decreased over this class. More than 80% of the False walnut trees contain diameter of l0 to 45 cm. Despite of the high density of False walnut seedlings, regeneration was not satisfactory and was generally asexual (root sucker).
False walnut trees grow as over as over storey form in most of its sites of the Caspian Forests with Alnus subcordata C.A.M., Alnus glutinosa Gaetn, Acer velutinum Boiss, Carpinus betulus L., Populus Caspica Bornm., Fraxinus excelsior L. and Juglans regia L., but in the investigated sites grow as two storey from. The False walnut qualitative characteristics (stem straightness, natural prunning and crown symmetry) were not desirable. Sixteen percent of the studied trees were attacked by pests and diseases, decayed or had crown breakage.
Key words: False walnut, site demand, diameter, height, growth, regeneration, Caspian forest.
Effects of spacing treatments on production of Poplar and alfalfa in intercropping method
F. Asadi1, M. Calagari1, R. Ghasemi1 and R. Bagheri1
Poplar species are usually cultivated for their wood production in most areas of Iran. They are traditionally planted with low spacing which does not render thick trees.
Moreover, for different reasons, increasing poplar spacing is not accepted by people and the farmers before accepting a new system, pay high importance for earning continuous income. Thus, addfitional income besides wood products is a vital factor to inrcease the public acceptance for poplar intercropping system. Therefore, intercropping poplar and fodder with increased spacing in order to increase under Randomized Compelete Block Design in 1998 with three replicates, using seedlings of P. nigra betulifolia, four spacing treatments (3×4, 3×6.66, 3×8 and 3×10m.), intercropped alfalfa and two monocultured control treatments of poplar and alfalfa.
The trial continued to 2003. Each plot area was 1200 m2. Ten different growth parameters the poplar and alfalfa species were measured. The data were analyzed, using the univariate and the multivariate statistical methods.
The results showed that the effect of treatments on poplar and alfalfa parameters were the greatest poplar height and volume amounts belonged to the spacing treatments of 3×4, 3×8 and 3×6.66m which were 1541, 141, 136 cm and 31.7, 20 and 19m3, respectively. The greatest production of alfalfa belonged to control, 3×10 and 3×8 m. spacing treatments which were 7507, 4788 and 4265 Kgha-1 biomass dry weight. The effects of the treatments on branch diameter and annual stem diameter growth rate were not significant, whereas the effects of time and interaction between time and treatments on some growth parameters were significant.
Key words: Agro forestry, Intercropping, Poplar, Alfalfa
Primary Research on establishment of olive seedlings at rainfed condition
The aim of the study was to examine the effect of one-year old olive seedlings (O. europaea L.) grown in pots under compacted soil and water deficiency conditions, on its subsequent survival and growth at field and rainfed circumstances. Compacted soil usually restricts seedlings root development, particularly in pots. The hypothesis was that the restricted and stressed roots might penetrate the soil layers deeply and widely after plantation at field condition. This means more availability of water and nutrition to olive seedlings and successful plantation at rainfed circumstances. The trial was conducted at two stages, including invivo and in situ in the Iranian National Botanical Garden at Tehran in 2002. Overall, 36 polyethylene sewerage pipes were used as pots (65 and 10 cm height and diameter, respectively) in the in vivo stage. The stress treatments were two levels of soil compaction (bulk densities of 1.3 [low] and 1.6 [high] g/cm3) and two irrigation period intervals (three [wet] and six [dry] days). The pots were grouped to two level sections and each section was filled with one of the levels of the compacted soil (sandy clay loam) up to 50 cm height. The seed propagated seedlings were transferred into the 36 pots and the two irrigation treatments were applied to the pots at each compaction level, separately under glasshouse condition.
Before transplanting the seedlings into the designed site in March 2003, the soil was tilled deeply at two directions by tractor. The planting holes were dug at 3 by 3 m. spacing system, using a tractor drill. The site soil type was sandy with more than 50% gravel content. The experimental design was Factorial under completely randomized blocks with two factors (compaction and irrigation preplanting treatments), two levels and three replicates. There were three seedlings in each plot. The effects of the treatments on seven shoot and root parameters were measured. The seedlings were harvested on January 2004. Except after transplanting, the seedlings have not been irrigated during the trial.
The results show that the seedlings survived successfully (100%) during the growth period, particularly under high drought stress, but without significant differences between the preplanting treatments. Irrigation and compaction did not have significant effects on shoot and root growth parameters, whereas their interactions had significant effects (р<0.05) on only four seedling growth parameters, including shoot height and dry weight, leaf dry weight and root/shoot ratio. The greatest mean of shoot height and leaf dry weight belonged to seedlings pretreated with high levels of compaction and water stress. The highest mean of shoot dry weight achieved in seedlings pretreated with high level of water stress and low level of compaction or high level of compaction and low level of water stress (20.7 and 19.76 g, respectively). The greatest mean of root/shoot ratio belonged to seedlings pretreated with high level of water stress and soil compaction (0.84).
It could be concluded that although both the compaction and drought preplanting stresses did not significantly influence survival, but they significantly affected shoot and root growth parameters. Therefore, the results can be applied for most of the semi-arid zones, using preplanting deep tillage method at two directions and after planting mulch cover for soil surface.
Key words: compaction, drought stress, Olea europaea, rainfed, root, soil.
The study of wild Pistacia distribution in Markazi Province
H. Zahedi Pour1, M. Fatahi2, H. Mirdavoodi3, G. Godarzi3
and Z. Azdoo4
Considering appropriate adaptability of different wild species of Pistacia in different Arid and Semi-Arid environment of the country as well as its high value from the point of view of Resin and other chemical production, oil, and pharmacological consumption of their seeds, founding their habitats in the different areas of Markazi Province seems to be important. In this project first of all, the basic information including topographical, soil, climate, geological, and land use map of the area with 1/50000 scale were prepared and digitized. Then all the areas which have covered by wild Pistacia were visited and recorded by GPS and then digitized. In order to study the quantity and quality characteristics of the species, some sample were taken from 1600m2 in some distributed areas of wild Pistacia according to different climatic condition of the Province. The parameters, such as the number of trees in the samples, trees height, trees width, trees diameter in height breast, the crown height and diameter, growth type and,etc were recorded in sampling areas. After establishing the DEM of the areas, aspect and slope map were also produced using dfdx and dfdy filter in ilwis academic program Package.
On the basis of this investigation the following results were obtained.
20 polygons of wild species of wild Pistacia with total areas of 2216 ha were recognized in Makazi Province of Iran.
The species-environment relationship including: slop, acpect, climate, landuse and soil were determined using maps integrating and data overlying.
1- Research Expert, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Kermanshah Province, I.R. Iran. E-mail: sonia – email@example.com
2- Member of Scientific Board, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, I. R. Iran.
3- Member of Scientific Board, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Kermanshah Province, I.R. Iran.
1- Scientific Board Member, Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Kurdistan Province, P.O Box 66169-36311, Sanandaj, I.R. -Iran.
E-mail: Bayzidyousefi @ Yahoo.com
2- Scientific Board Member, Research Institute of Forest and Rangelands, P.O.Box 13185 -116, Tehran, I.R. Iran. E-mail: Modir -Rahmati@rifr-ac.ir.
1- Research Expert, Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Hormozgan Province, Bandar – Abbas, I.R. Iran.
1- Research Expert, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre of Mazandaran province (ANRRCMP), SARI, I.R. Iran.
2- Member of Scientific Board, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, I. R. Iran. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
3- Member of Scientific Board, ANRRCMP.
1- Scientific Board Members, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, P.O. Box 13185-116, Tehran, Iran. I.R. E-mail: F. Asadi@rifr-ac.ir
1- Scientific Board Member, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, P.O.Box 13185-116, Tehran, I.R. Iran. E-mail: email@example.com
1- Associated Prof. Of agricultur and natural resources research center of Markazi Province E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2- Member of scientific board of forest and rangeland research institute of Iran
3- Member of scientific board of agricultur and natural resources research center of Markazi Province
4- Expert of agricultur and natural resources research center of Markazi Province