عنوان مقاله [English]
The temperate deciduous stands in northern Iran are considered as relict forests from Tertiary, which have not been influenced by glacials. The high biodiversity makes these forests more valuable, hence we can consider them as a unique gene reserve in the world. Existence of several trees such as beech, maple, alder, wild service tree, ash, wild cherry, oak and ironwood make the value of Caspian forests more clearly.
Among these broad-leaved trees, beech has an important role in development and succession of the forests. The proportion of beech is 23.6% of total stem number and 29.9% of total volume of Caspian forests. Studying the development stages and the quantitative as well as qualitative characteristics of each stage in undisturbed stands can show us a sustainable management method of forest.
For this purpose, two reserve unmanaged beech stands in Kelardashat region are studied. Eight sample plots, each one ha (100 x 100m) laid out and parameters such as tree species, stem number per diameter, height classes, volume, basal area and regeneration were studied in each development stage.
Results showed that all the three main development stages (initial, optimal and decay) would be recognized in the studied beech forests. The maximum stem number per ha was 468 in the initial stage, whereas the minimum was 279 in the decay stage. The highest volume was computed for 588 m3/ha in the optimal stage, while the lowest was 357 m3/ha in the decay stage. The highest number of regeneration was observed in the optimal stage (17600 N/ha), whereas the lowest amount was observed in the optimal stage (1090 N/ha).