عنوان مقاله [English]
With covering an area of 14 ha, the investigated site is located in Armardeh Oak forests of Baneh city, Kurdistan province. The main problem of these forests is the lack of regeneration. In this research four different techniques of restoration operations, all of them in the shape of a participatory management approach were tested as randomized complete Design (RCD) with 5 treatment and 30 replications. The techniques are as follows: fencing outside the crown coverage, fencing beneath the crown coverage, fencing along with direct seeding and fencing plus seeding via Jiffy pellet technique. For the quantitative and qualitative measurements, thirty permanent macro plots each 1000 m2, were laid out in the study area randomly. Five microplots, each 1m2, were laid out within the macro plots for the restoration techniques. Inputs of the test were the number of primer seeds and outputs were number of seedlings and their heights. The results showed that only 2% of shed seeds have been converted to seedlings by late spring. Using fencing, even out of crown cover, caused increasing in natural regeneration up to one seedling per m2, Therefore, it seems that the main limiting factor of regeneration is livestock grazing. If fencing exerts beneath crown cover, natural regeneration will increase up to 3.9 seedlings per m2. Applying artificial methods increased regeneration significantly. Conservation with seeding via Jiffy pellet technique showed to be the best technical method either from number of seedlings or their heights point of view.