ارزیابی پوسیدگی درختان آسیب‌دیده راش (Fagus orientalis) حاشیه مسیرهای چوبکشی با استفاده از تکنیک غیرمخرب امواج تنشی

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه جنگلداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم دریایی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشیار، گروه جنگلداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم دریایی

چکیده

یکی از پیامدهای عملیات چوبکشی صدمه به درختان حاشیه مسیرها می‌باشد که در بلند‌مدت ممکن است به کاهش رویش آنها بینجامد. در این پژوهش اثرهای چوبکشی زمینی بر ایجاد و گسترش پوسیدگی درختان راش (Fagus orientalis lipsky) مجاور مسیرهای چوبکشی با سنین 0 تا 5، 5 تا 10، 10 تا 15 و 15 تا 20 سال مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. پس از تقسیم‌بندی مسیرها (به سه بخش با تردد کم، متوسط و شدید) بر مبنای فاصله از دپوها و انشعابات، با استفاده از دستگاه سنجش سرعت امواج تنشی، زمان عبور امواج در سه جهت (جهت زخم، عمود بر زخم و جهت طولی تنه) برای تمامی درختان حاشیه مسیرها اندازه‌گیری شد. پس از اصلاح با استفاده از ضریب تصحیح دستگاه، سرعت‌ امواج تنشی برای درختان در هر سه جهت بدست آمد و مورد تجزیه و تحلیل آماری قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که بیش از 75 درصد از درختان در حاشیه 5/1 متری از دو طرف مسیرها دچار زخم توسط اسکیدر شده‌اند که حدود 25 درصد زخمها منجر به پوسیدگی شدند. این در حالیست که حتی یک مورد پوسیدگی نیز در درختان بدون زخم حاشیه مسیر یافت نشد. با افزایش سن مسیرهای چوبکشی نیز شدت پوسیدگی افزایش یافته بود. بیشترین پوسیدگی در درختان واقع در محل پیچ‌ها و نیز درختان واقع در پایین مسیرها بود. نتایج این تحقیق بیانگر صدمات جبران‌ناپذیر اما قابل پیشگیری به درختان سرپای محدوده اثر اسکیدر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Decay evaluation of damaged beech trees (Fagus orientalis L.) adjacent to skid trails by nondestructive stress wave technique

نویسندگان [English]

  • Davoud Kartoolinejad 1
  • Akbar Najafi 1
  • Sa'eid Kazemi-Najafi 2
1 Prof., Dept. of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, University of Tarbiat Modares
2 Associate Prof., Faculty Dept. of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, University of Tarbiat Modares
چکیده [English]

    Ground skidding damages the marginal trees of the skid trails and may decrease their growth increment at long period. In this research the effects of ground skidding on decay development and extent of the beech trees (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) adjacent to the skid trails, at four age classes, including: 0-5, 5-10, 10-15 and 15-20 year were investigated. After classifying the skid trails to three traffic levels, including: low, moderate and sever, depending on their distance to depot location and trails intersections, the time required for wave transit across the marginal trees at three directions, consisting of: wound direction, wound cross and stem longitudinal direction, was measured, using a stress wave velocity apparatus. After data correction by the apparatus correction coefficient, the tree’s stress wave velocity at the three directions were calculated then statistically analyzed. The results showed that more than 75% of the trees located at 1.5 m. distance adjacent to the skid trails, were wounded by the skidders which resulted in 25% decay. There was also not any decay in the unwounded trees adjacent to the skid trails. Therefore the decay extended when the age of the skid trails increased. Most of the decays were found at trees located at the skid’s trails curves and t down slopes. The results of this research demonstrate an irretrievable, but preventable damage to the standing trees within the skid’s activity extent.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • logging damage
  • traffic
  • depot
  • wave transit velocity and time
  • skidder
  • stem wound
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