مقایسه تنوع بی‌مهرگان لاشبرگ عرصه‌های جنگل طبیعی و جنگل‌کاری‌های پهن‌برگ و سوزنی‌برگ در مازندران (مطالعه موردی: دارابکلا)

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهش، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان مازندران

2 دانشیار پژوهش، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور

3 دانشیار، دانشکده علوم جنگل و فناوری چوب و کاغذ، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

4 کارشناس ارشد، اداره کل منابع طبیعی و آبخیزداری استان مازندران

چکیده

بااهمیت­ترین نقش بی­مهرگان لاشبرگ، تجزیه لاشبرگ­ها و کمک در چرخه عناصر غذایی است. این تحقیق به ارزیابی تنوع بی­مهرگان لاشبرگ در عرصه­های جنگل‌کاری 20 ساله توسکای ییلاقی، پلت، بلندمازو، زربین و عرصه جنگل طبیعی مجاور آنها در منطقه دارابکلا می­پردازد. جهت بررسی در هر تیمار، ابتدا یک عرصه یک هکتاری تعیین و در آن ده پلات 100 مترمربعی با ابعاد شبکه 10×10 متر به‌صورت سیستماتیک تصادفی انتخاب شد. در هر فصل کلیه لاشبرگ­های موجود در میکروپلات­های یک مترمربعی جمع­آوری و به آزمایشگاه منتقل گردید. در طول چهار فصل، بی­مهرگان لاشبرگ در 200 میکروپلات یک مترمربعی مورد شناسایی و شمارش قرار گرفت. همچنین در هر مرحله از نمونه­برداری، متغیرهای متعددی از ویژگی­های توده، لاشبرگ و خاک اندازه‌گیری شد. تنوع بی­مهرگان لاشبرگ نیز با استفاده از شاخص­های شانون و سیمپسون تعیین گردید. براساس نتایج تحقیق حاضر روند کاهش مقادیر تنوع بی­مهرگان لاشبرگ (سیمپسون) به‌ترتیب شامل عرصه­های جنگل‌کاری توسکا، پلت، عرصه جنگل طبیعی و جنگل‌کاریهای زربین و بلندمازو بوده است. همچنین تجزیه و تحلیل مؤلفه­های اصلی نشان داد که تغییرات فصلی تنوع بی­مهرگان لاشبرگ، تحت تأثیر متغیرهای درجه حرارت، تاج‌پوشش، شدت نور نسبی، رطوبت لاشبرگ، رطوبت خاک و مقادیر فسفر و نسبت کربن آلی بر فسفر لاشبرگ می­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation on litter invertebrates diversity at natural forests and reforestations of hardwood and softwood in Mazandaran(Case study: Darabkola)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shirzad Mohammadnezhad Kiasari 1
  • Khosro Sagheb-Talebi 2
  • Ramin Rahmani 3
  • Dina Dastangoo 4
1 Prof., Agricultural & Natural Resources Research Center of Mazandaran
2 Accosiate Prof., Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands
3 Accosiate Prof, Faculty of Forest Sciences and Wood & Paper Technology, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
4 Forest Expert, Mazandaran General Office of Natural Resources and Watershed Management
چکیده [English]

The most important role of the litter invertebrates is leaf litter decomposition and helping of nutrient elements cycling. The objective of this study was to evaluate litter invertebrates dversity within 20 years old plantations of alder (Alnus subcordata C. A. Mey.), maple (Acer velutinum Bioss.), oak (Quercus castaneifolia C. A. Mey.), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis) and natural forest in Darabkola (Mazandaran-Iran). For this purpose, one sample plot, each 1 ha was selected in every plantation as well as in the natural stand. In each sample plot 10 micro plots, each 100 m2 were selected random-systematically. Litter invertebrates were sampled by removing, by hand, all leaf litter in 100×100 cm quadrats. Fifty samples were taken each time and during four seasons 200 samples were taken.  Invertebrates were separated out visually in the lab and transferred to 95% alchol, after sorting and counting. More over, various parameters of the stands and soils were measured in each micro plot. For determination of soil invertebrates diversity in these treatments, Shannon and Simpson indices were used, while for determination of species richness and equatibility, Margalef and Heip indices were applied. The results of this research showed that although the differences between the annual means of litter invertebrates diversity was not statistically significant in studied sites (p=0.05), but the decreasing of diversity index in these treatments was respectively as reforestations of alder, maple, natural forest with cypress and oak reforestations. Also the analysis of PCA showed that the parameters of temperature, crown canopy, relative light intensity, moisture content of soil and litter and the amount of P and C/P of litter take an important role in seasonal differences of litter invertebrates diversity in treatments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • richness
  • evenness
  • nutrient elements cycling
  • ALDER
  • MAPLE
  • Oak
  • Cypress
- Anonymous, 1996. Manual of Darabkola forest management plan. Published by Forests and Rangelands Organization of Iran, Forestry section, Natural Resources General office of Mazandaran, Sari, Iran, 78 p.

- Baldwin, I.T., Olson, R.K. and Reiners, W.K., 1983. Protein binding phenolic and the inhibition of nitrification balsam fir soils. Soil Biol. Biochem., 15(3): 419-423.

- Bargali, S.S., Singh, S.P. and Singh, R.P., 1993. Patterns of weight loss and nutrient release from decomposing leaf litter in an area series of Eucalypt plantations. Soil Biol. Biochem., 25(2): 1731-1738.

- Basset, Y. and Kitching, R.L., 1991. Species number, species abundance and body length of arboreal arthropods associated with an Australian rainforest tree. Ecological Entomology, 16(4): 391-402.

- Bradford, M.A., Tordof, G.M., Egger, T., Jones, H. and Newington, J.E., 2002. Microbiota, fauna, and mesh size interaction in litter decomposition. Oikos, 99(3): 317-323.

- Collerati, R.G., Schoereder, J.H. and Paulo, C.S., 1995. Microclimate ordination and litter arthropod distribution. Ciencia e Cultura Sao Paulo, 47(1): 38-41.

- Csuzdi, C., Zicsi, A., Virresh, G.K., Rajagopal, D. and Viraktamath, C.A., 1991. The significance of the earthworm species Eisenia Lucens in the decomposition of forest litter. Proceedings of the 10th international soil zoology colloguium, held at Bangalore, India, 7-13 August: 547-552.

- Dufour, Dl., Cerda, H., Torres, F., Pizzoferrato, L. and Pimentel, D., 2000. The importance of leaf and litter-feeding invertebrates as sources of animal protein for the Amazonian Amerindians. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 22 Nov: 2247-2252.

- Elizabeth, A.L. and Kris, F., 2004. The impact of herbicide glyphosate on leaf litter invertebrate within Bitou bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp rotundata, infestations. Pest Manag. Sci., 60(1): 1205-1212.

- Farhadi, F., 2006. Determination of nutrient return through litter to the forest floor in intermediate zone of the Caspian forest. MSc. Thesis, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran, 61 p.

- Facelli, J.M. and Ladd, B., 1996. Germination requirements and responses to leaf litter of four species of eucalypt. Oecologia, 107(4): 441-445.

- Finzi, A.C., Allen, A.S., Delucia, E.H., Ellsworth, D.S. and Schlesinger, W.H., 2001. Forest litter production, chemistry and decomposition following two years of free air CO2 enrichment. Ecology, 82(2): 470-484.

- Fragoso, C. and Lavella, P., 1995. Are earthworms important in the decomposition of tropical litter? Soil Organisms and Litter Decomposition in the Tropics: 103-112.

- Frith, D. and Frith, C., 1990. Seasonality of litter invertebrate populations in an Australian upland tropical rain forest. Biotropica, 22(4): 181-190.

- Furuta, K., Kubota, K., Musyafa, A. and Iwamota, N., 1997. Effects of artificial acid rain on the abundance of macro invertebrates in soil without litter. Bulletin of the Tokyo University Forests, 98(1): 9-23.

- Gemesi, O., Skambracks, D. and Topp, W., 1995. Effects of a controlled felling operation on the population density of, and litter decomposition by earthworms in the Flysch zone of the Tegernsee mountains. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt, 114(4): 272-281.

- Gholz, H.L., Wedin, D.A., Smitherman, S.M., Harmon, M.E. and Parton, W.J., 2000. Long-term dynamics of Pine and hardwood litter in contrasting environments: toward a global model of decomposition. Global Change Biol., 6(2): 751-765.

- Gonzalez, G. and Seastedt, T.R., 2001. Soil fauna and plant litter decomposition in tropical and subalpine forests. Ecology, 82(2): 955-964.

- Handa, S. and Vats, L.K., 1990. Soil litter Coleoptera in a deciduous forest stand at Kurukshetra. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology, 10(4): 88-90.

- Hasegawa, M. and Takeda, H., 1996. Carbon and nutrient dynamics in decomposing pine needle litter in relation to fungal and faunal abundance. Pedobiologia, 40(1): 171-184.

- Heraldo, L.V. and William, F.L., 2005. Influence of habitat, litter type and soil invertebrates on leaf-litter decomposition in a fragmented Amazonian landscape. Oecologia, 144(4): 456-462.

- Hutson, B.R.L. and Veitch, G., 1987. Densities of Collembola and Acarina in the soil and litter of three indigenous South Australian forests related to layer, site and seasonal differences. Australian Journal of Ecology, 12(2): 239-261.

- Jafari Haghighi, M., 2000. Methods of Soil Analaysis. Published by Nedaye Zoha, Tehran, Iran, 236 p.

- Kwok, H.K. and Richard, T.C., 2002. Seasonality of forest invertebrates in Hong Kong, South China. Tropical Ecology, 18(1): 637-644.

- Mafongoya, P.L., Barak, P. and Reed, J.D., 2000. Carbon, Nitrogen and phosphorous mineralization from tree leaves and manure. Biology and Fertility of Soil, 30(3): 298-305.

- Mcglynn, T.P., Salinas, D.J., Dunn, R.R., Wood, T.E., Lawrence, D. and Clark, D.A., 2006. Phosphorus limits tropical rain forest litter fauna. Biotropica, 39(4): 50-53.

- Mohammadnezhad Kiasari, Sh., 2007. Investigation on some biodiversitical characteristics (vegetable components & macro organisms) of natural and planted forests (hardwoods and softwoods) in Darab Kola forests.Final report of research project, Published by Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, Iran, 87 p.

- Nasiri, R., 2006. SPSS 13. Published by Nashrgostar, Tehran, Iran, 123 p.

- Pearson, R.G. and Tobin, R.K., 1989. Litter consumption by invertebrates from an Australian tropical rainforest stream. Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie, 116(3): 71-80.

- Rahmani, R., 2000. Study of earth invertebrates abundance and their relation with major forest types in Neka. PhD. thesis of forest sciences, Tarbiat Modarres University, Noor, Iran, 97 p.

- Ratsirarson, H., Robertson, H.G., Picker M.D. and Van Noort, S., 2002. Indigenous forests versus exotic eucalypt and pine plantations: a comparison of litter invertebrate communities. African Entomology, 10(3): 93-99.

- Reddy, M.V. and Venkataiah, B., 1989. Influence of microarthropod abundance and climatic factors on weight loss and mineral nutrient contents of Eucalyptus leaf litter during decomposition. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 8(1): 319-324.

- Sagheb-Talebi, Kh., 1996. Quantitative und Qualitative Merkmale von Bunchenjungwuechsen (Fagus sylvatica L.) unter dem Einfluss des Lichtes und anderer Standortsfaktoren. Beiheft Zur Schweizerischen fur Forstwesen supplement au journal forestier suisse, 78, 219 p.

- Singh, U.R., 1977. Relationship between the population density of soil microarthropods and mycoflora associated with litter and the total litter respiration on the floor of a sal forest in Varanasi, India. Ecological Bulletins Stockholm, 25(4): 463-470.

- Steven, W.S. and Brian, R.S., 2005. Forest productivity predicts invertebrate biomass and ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus) reproduction in Appalachian landscapes. Ecology, 86(4): 1531-1539.

- Sundarapandian, S.M. and Swamy, P.S., 1999. Litter production and leaf litter decomposition of selected species in tropical forests. For. Ecol. Manage., 123(1): 231-244.

- Wipfli, C.M., Meritt, R.W. and Wipfli, M.S., 2005. Headwater riparian invertebrate communities associated with red alder and conifer wood and leaf litter in southeastern. Northest Scientific Association, 79(4): 218-224.

- Wolda, H., 1988. Insect seasonality: why? Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 19(2):1-18.

- Xuluc-Tolosa, F.J., Vester, H.F.M., Ramirez-Marcial, N., Castellanos-Albores, J. and Lawrence, D., 2003. Leaf litter decomposition of tree species in three successional phases of tropical dry secondary forest in Campeche, Mexico. For. Ecol. Manage., l74(3): 401-412.