ارزیابی توان گیاه‌پالایی کادمیم در بافت‌های مختلف خاک توسط گونه‌های اقاقیا (Robinia pseoudoacacia L.)، زبان‌گنجشک (Fraxinus rotundifolia Miller) و سرو نقره‌ای (Cupressus arizonica Greene)

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری جنگل‌شناسی و اکولوژی جنگل، آکادمی ملی علوم ارمنستان، ایروان

2 استادیار، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

3 استاد، دانشگاه کشاورزی آکادمی ملی علوم ارمنستان، ایروان

4 استادیار، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم دریایی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

امروزه آلودگی خاک‌ها توسط کادمیوم به نگرانی بزرگی تبدیل شده است. گیاه‌پالایی روشی ساده، اقتصادی و سازگار با محیط زیست برای پالایش محیط‌های آلوده به‌شمار می‌آید. در این تحقیق، اثر بافت خاک (رسی، رسی- لومی و رسی- لومی- شنی) بر انباشت کادمیوم در اندام­های برگ، ساقه، شاخه‌ و ریشه نهال‌های یک‌ساله گونه‌های اقاقیا (Robinia pseoudoacacia L.)، زبان‌گنجشک (Fraxinus rotundifolia Miller) و سرو نقره‌ای (Cupressus arizonica Greene) در قالب طرح فاکتوریل با چهار فاکتور (گونه، اندام، غلظت و بافت خاک) با پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. در پایان فصل رویشی میزان تجمع فلز کادمیم در اندام‌های مورد بررسی اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که بین سه گونه مورد بررسی برای جذب کادمیم در سطح اطمینان 99 درصد اختلاف معنی‌دار وجود داشت. همچنین تفاوت معنی‌داری بین میزان جذب توسط اندام‌های سه گونه در سطح اطمینان 99 درصد مشاهده شد. غلظت‌های 1000، 2000، 3000 و 4000 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم نیز در میزان جذب کادمیم در همین سطح دارای اختلاف معنی‌دار بودند. با توجه به تنظیم بافت خاک مبتنی بر رویشگاه­های اصلی وهمچنین مناطق مناسب کاشت آنها، فاکتور بافت خاک در این مطالعه فاقد اثر معنی‌داری در جذب کادمیم بود. درمجموع، اقاقیا بیشترین میزان جذب نسبت به دو گونه دیگر را به خود اختصاص داد که این امر به‌دلیل ویژگی­های ژنتیکی آن است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of cadmium absorption in different soil textures by black locust (Robinia pseoudoacacia L.), round-leaf ash (Fraxinus rotundifolia Miller) and Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica Greene)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Yahya Khodakarami 1
  • Anoushirvan Shirvani 2
  • Jirar Vardanian 3
  • Hormoz Sohrabi 4
1 Ph.D. Student of Forest Ecology, National Academy Sciences of Armenia
2 Assistant Prof., Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran
3 Prof., State Agrarian University, National Academy Sciences of Armenia
4 Assistant Prof., Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, University of Tarbiat Modares
چکیده [English]

Soil pollution caused by cadmium has recently become a major concern. Phytoremediation is a convenient, cost-effective and eco-friendly method for remediation of polluted environments. In this study, the effect of soil texture (clay, clay-loam and silty- clay- loam) on the cadmium accumulation by leaves, stems, and roots of black locust (Robinia pseoudoacacia L.), round-leaf ash (Fraxinus rotundifolia Miller) and Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica Greene) was surveyed. The study was carried out in a complete random-based factorial design with four factors (plant species, plant organs, soil texture and cadmium concentration level). At the end of the growing season, the cadmium concentration in the organs was measured. Analysis of variance showed significant deference (P < 0.01) of cadmium absorption amongst the species. Moreover, the three species showed significantly different absorption rate amongst different organs. In addition, different cadmium concentrations (1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 mg/kg) applied on the species revealed significantly different absorptions. Soil texture was concluded to have no significant effect on cadmium absorption. Furthermore, R. pseoudoacacia revealed the highest absorption level which was attributed to its genetic specifications.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Robinia pseoudoacacia
  • soil texture
  • Fraxinus rotundifolia
  • biofiltration
  • Cupressus arizonica
  • Cadmium
- Adriana, D.C., 2001. Trace Elements in Terrestrial Environments: Biogeochemistry, Bioavailability, and Risks of Metals. Springer Science & Business Media, 867p.

- Aftabtalab, N., 2008. Ability of phytoremediation of Lead and Cadmium by Platanus orientalis and Cupressus arizonica. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, Faculty of Natural Ressources, University of Tehran, Karaj, 144p (In Persian).

- Alexander, L., 2000. Role of root functions on cadmium uptake by plants – structural aspects of root organization. Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia.

- Antonkiewicz, J. and Jasiewicz, C., 2002. The use of plants accumulating heavy metals for detoxification of chemically polluted soils. Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities, 5: 121-143.

- Assareh, M.H., Shariat, A. and Ghamari-Zare, A., 2008. Seedling response of three Eucalyptusspecies to copper and zinc toxic concentrations. Caspian Journal of Environmental Science, 6(2): 97-103.

- Atashnama, K., Golchin, A. and Esmaeeli, M., 2006. The accumulation of heavy metals in Medicago, Onobrychis and Lathyrus. Proceedings of the Conference on Soil, Environment and Sustainable Development, Karaj, 3p (In Persian).

- Bodar, C.W., Pronk, M.E. and Sijm, D.T., 2006. The European Union risk assessment on zinc and zinc compounds: The process and the facts. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 1: 301-319.

- Doumett, S., Lamperi, L., Checchini, L., Azzarello, E., Mugnai, S., Mancuso, S., Petruzzelli, G. and Del Bubba, M., 2008. Heavy metal distribution between contaminated soil and Paulownia tomentosa, in a pilot-scale assisted phytoremediation study: Influence of different complexing agents, Chemosphere, 72: 1481-1490.

- Fotakis, G. and Timbrell, J.A., 2006. Role of trace elements in cadmium chloride uptake in hepatoma cell lines. Toxicology Letters,164: 97-103.

- Hosseinzadeh Monfared, S., Matinizadeh, M., Shirvany, A., Zahedi Amiri, G., Mousavi Fard, R. and Rostami, F., 2013. Accumulation of heavy metal in Platanus orientalis, Robinia pseudoacacia and Fraxinus rotundifolia. Journal of Forestry Research, 24(2): 391-395.

- Kabata, A. and Pendius, H., 1992. Trace Elements in soils and plants. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Florida.

- Kadukova, J. and Kalogerakis, N., 2007.Lead accumulation from non-saline and saline environments by Tamarix smyrnensis Bunge. European Journal of Soil Biology, 43: 216-223.

- McGrath, S.P., Zhao, F.J. and Lombi, E., 2002. Phytoremediation of metals, metalloids, and radionuclides. Advances in Agronomy, 75: 1-56.

- Mohamadi, M., Shirvani Mahani, S. and Fotovat, A., 2006. Compared the absorption of zinc and cadmium in radish and cress and study their interactions. Proceedings of the Conference on Soil, Environment and Sustainable Development, Karaj, 3p (In Persian).

- Prasad, M.N.V., 1995. Cadmium toxicity and the tolerance in vascular plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany 35: 525- 545.

- Pulford, I.D. and Watson, C., 2003. Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated land by trees – a review. Environment International,29: 529-540.

- Root, R.A., Miller, R.J. and Koeppe, D.E., 1975. Uptake of cadmium- Its toxicity, and effect on the iron- to- zinc ratio in hydroponically grown corn. Journal of Environmental Quality, 4: 473-476.

- Soroush, F., Mousavi, F., Razmjou, K. and Mostafazadeh Fard, B., 2008. Effect of filter effluent on absorption some elements of soil by the grass in different soils texture. Journal of Soil and Water (Sciences and Technology of Agricultural), 22(2): 285-294 (In Persian).

- Tlustos, P., Szákova, J., Vyslouzilova, M., Pavlikova, D., Weger, J. and Javorska, H., 2007. Variation in the uptake of arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc by different speciesof willows )Salix ssp.( grown in contaminated soils. Central European Journal of Biology, 2: 254-275.

- Unterbrunner, R., Puschenreiter, M., Sommer, P.A., Wieshammer, G., Tlustos, P., Zupan, M. and Wenzel, W.W., 2007. Heavy metal accumulation in trees growing on contaminated sites in Central Europe. Environmental Pollution, 148: 107-114.

- Vandecasteele, B., Meers, E., Vervaeke, P., De Vos, B., Quataert, P. and Tack, F.M.G., 2005. Growth and trace metal accumulation of two Salix clones on sediment-derived soils with increasing contamination levels. Journal of Chemosphere, 58: 995-1002.

- Vassilev, A., Tsonev, T. and Yordanov, I., 1998. Physiological response of barely plants (Hordeum vulgaris) to cadmium contamination in soil during ontogenesis. Environmental Pollution, 103: 287-293.

- Utmazian, M.N.D.S. and Wenzel, W.W., 2007. Cadmium and zinc accumulation in willow and poplar species grown on polluted soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition Soil Science, 170: 265-272.