برآورد تولید بذر مازودار (Quercus infectoria) درجنگلهای بانه

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد جنگلشناسی و اکولوژی جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه کردستان

2 استادیار، مرکز پژوهش و توسعه جنگلداری زاگرس شمالی، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه کردستان

3 دانشیار، مرکز پژوهش و توسعه جنگلداری زاگرس شمالی، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه کردستان

چکیده

بذر درختان بلوط یک منبع مهم برای تغذیه گونه ­های مختلف جانوری، مصارف سنتی و همچنین استقرار زادآوری طبیعی در جنگل به‌حساب می ­آید. در پژوهش پیش‌رو، برآورد کمی بذر مازودار (Quercus infectoria Oliv.) در جنگل­های روستای کانی‌برد شهرستان بانه، استان کردستان مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. ابتدا به‌منظور آگاهی از وضعیت عمومی منطقه، 20 قطعه ­نمونه 400 متر مربعی (20×20 متر) به روش تصادفی منظم انتخاب و مشخصه ­های قطر برابر سینه، ارتفاع کل، ارتفاع تنه، ارتفاع تاج، دو قطر بزرگ و کوچک تاج درختان به‌تفکیک گونه برداشت شد. برای برآورد کمی بذر محدوده ­ای به مساحت 80 هکتار انتخاب شد و 80 اصله درخت در دو طبقه قطری (کمتر از 25 و بیشتر از 25 سانتی­متر) و در چهار جهت جغرافیایی اصلی (درمجموع هشت سطح) گزینش شدند. همه بذرهای روی درخت در آبان 1392 با استفاده از چوب دستی برداشت و جمع ­آوری شد و وزن آن­ها با استفاده از ترازو در عرصه اندازه­ گیری شد. از هر درخت به‌طور تصادفی 50 عدد بذر انتخاب شد و طول، عرض و وزن آن­ها اندازه­ گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که جهت‌های جغرافیایی اثر معنی­ داری بر مشخصه ­های کمی درختان و مقدار تولید بذر نداشتند، اما درختان موجود در جهت ­های شمالی و شرقی بذرهای بزرگتر و سنگین­تری نسبت به جهت­ های جنوبی و غربی تولید می‌نمایند. قطر درخت نیز اثر معنی‌دار بر تولید بذر داشت و با افزایش قطر، تولید بذر نیز افزایش می‌یابد. به‌طورکلی، میانگین تولید بذر 1/9 کیلوگرم برای هر درخت مازودار بود که مقدار آن از صفر تا 19/87 کیلوگرم و شمار آن از صفر تا 3088 برای هر درخت متغیر بود. نتایج این بررسی نشان از سال بذردهی ضعیف برای توده ­های مورد بررسی داشت و نتایج به‌دست‌آمده می ­تواند در مدیریت و برنامه ­ریزی توده ­های جنگلی غرب و همچنین ارزیابی توان تولید بذر این جنگل­ها مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Estimation of acorn production by gall oak (Quercus infectoria Oliv.) in Baneh forests

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zobeideh Karimi 1
  • Zahed Shakeri 2
  • Naghi Shabanian 3
1 M.Sc. Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
2 Assistant Prof., The Center for Research & Development of Northern Zagros Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
3 Associate Prof., The Center for Research & Development of Northern Zagros Forestry, Faculty of Natural ‎Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

    Acorns provide important food sources for wildlife. In addition, they are traditionally used by forest dwellers and promote natural regeneration within forest ecosystems. However, a sufficient acorn mass is essential for a successful regeneration establishment. Here, we estimated acorn production of gall oak (Quercus infectoria Oliv.)trees in Kanybard in Baneh forests of Kurdistan province. Stand structure and general information were obtained from 20 square plots (20×20 m), which were scattered randomly in the study area. In a homogenous area of 80 ha, 80 sample trees were selected. To evaluate the effect of tree diameter and geographical aspect on acorn production, we selected two diameter classes (25 cm) nested in four main cardinal aspects (totally 8 levels). All acorns on each tree were collected at the end of 2013 growing season and were weighted in the field. In each level, 50 acorns were selected randomly, and their weight, length and width were measured. The results showed that geographical aspect does not affect acorn production. However, oak trees on northern and eastern aspects produce bigger and heavier acorns. In addition, tree diameter was found to positively affect acorn production, i.e. thicker trees produce more acorn. In average, each gall oak tree produces 1.907 kg acorn mass which varies between 0 to 19.87 kg in weight and 0 to 3088 acorns per tree. Our result indicated a weak acorn mast year for studied forest stands, which can help forest managers to evaluate and plan for acorn production in northern Zagros forests.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Acorn
  • Zagros forest
  • geographic aspects
  • acorn number
  • acorn weight
- Anonymous, 2014. Kurdistan Meteorological Office, available at:

      http://www.kurdistanmet.ir/pages/default.aspx

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