بررسی ویژگی‌های رویشی و مورفولوژیک پروونانس‌های پده (Populus euphratica) در خزانه آزمایشی استان خوزستان

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد پژوهش، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور

2 استادیار، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور

3 کارشناس پژوهش، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان خوزستان

چکیده

گونه‌ بومی تندرشد پده (Populus euphratica) به‌سبب پراکندگی زیاد در کشور و تحمل به شوری خاک و شرایط اقلیمی گرم و خشک از اهمیت زیادی برخوردار است. این بررسی در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی کوشکک در استان خوزستان به‌عنوان یکی از رویشگاه‌های عمده پده بر روی 20 پروونانس پده (P. euphratica) با مبدأهای جغرافیایی مختلف کشور به‌همراه یک کلن حاصل از کشت سلولی انجام شد. از هر پروونانس 30 قلمه تهیه و در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در بهمن 1388 کشت شد. ویژگی­های کمی و کیفی نهال­ها شامل رشد قطر یقه و ارتفاع، درصد جوانه‌زنی قلمه‌، سطح ویژه و درصد ماده خشک برگ و مشخصه‌های مورفولوژیکی برگ شامل طول، حداکثر پهنا، نسبت طول به حداکثر پهنا، طول دمبرگ، نسبت طول دمبرگ به طول برگ، ضخامت و سطح برگ به‌همراه صفت‌های زاویه شاخه با تنه و تعداد شاخه‌های بلندتر از 0/5 متر در طول یک سال پس از کاشت در خزانه اندازه‌گیری شدند. نتایج تجزیه­واریانس نشان داد که از لحاظ تمام صفت‌های موردبررسی، به‌جز تعداد شاخه‌های بلندتر از 0/5 متر و زاویه شاخه، بین پروونانس‌‌ها اختلاف معنی‌دار وجود دارد و پروونانس‌های رامهرمز و اصفهان به‌ترتیب از رشد قطری و ارتفاعی مطلوب‌‌تری برخوردار بودند. پروونانس ماهنشان نیز به‌دلیل درصد جوانه‌زنی کم و عدم تناسب مورفولوژی برگ آن با شرایط اقلیم گرمسیری، نامناسبترین پروونانس برای استقرار در شمال استان خوزستان بود. همچنین طبق نتایج آزمون تجزیه به مؤلفه‌های اصلی، پروونانس‌های ماهنشان، جلفا، زابل و کرمان از سایر ژنوتیپ‌ها متمایز شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of growth and morphological characteristics of Euphrates poplar (Populus euphratica) provenances at experimental nursery of Khuzestan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Pedram Ghadiripour 1
  • Mohsen Calagari 2
  • Mohammad Hasan Salehe Shushtari 3
1 Research Expert, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Prof., Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
3 Research Expert, Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Native fast growing species of Euphrates poplar (Populus euphratica) is broadly distributed in Iran and is considered important due to its tolerance to saline soils and warm and dry climate conditions. In this study, twenty Euphrates poplar provenances and a cell-cultured clone from all over country were studied in Kushkak research station in Khuzestan province, one of the main Euphrates poplar habitats in Iran. Thirty cuttings from each provenance were planted under a RCBD in February 2010. Growth characteristics including collar diameter (CD), height (H), Germination percentage (GP) of cuttings, special leaf area, and dry matter percentage of leaves were studied. In addition, a number of leaf morphological traits including leaf length (LL), maximum width (MLW), LL to MLW ratio, petiole length (PL), PL to LL ratio, thickness and leaf area, branch-to-stem angle (BSA) and number of branches > 0.5 m (NB) were also recorded during one year after planting. ANOVA results showed that all investigated traits significantly differed in all parameters except NB and BSA. Moreover, provenances of Ramhormoz and Isfahan showed the highest rates of CD and H growth. Mahneshan provenance was the most unfavorable genotype for establishment in north of the Khuzestan province due to its low GP as well as its incompatible morphology with warm climate of the region. Consequently, PCA results revealed significant differences of that provenances of Mahneshan, Jolfa, Zabol and Kerman to other genotypes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Populus euphratica
  • provenance
  • Khuzestan
  • growth traits
  • morphological traits
- Anonymous, 1992. Comprehensive and Detailed Plan for Landscape of Mobarake Steel Complex. Industrial Report, pp: 53-55.

- Anonymous., 2001. Review of the Potential for Soil Carbon Sequestration under Bioenergy Crops in the U.K. Scientific Report. Cranfield University Press, pp: 30-38.

- Bakhtiarvand Bakhtiari, S. and Sohrabi, H., 2012. Allometric equations for estimating above and below-ground carbon storage of four broadleaved and coniferous trees. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research 20(3): 481-492 (In Persian).

- Baret, F. and Guyot, G., 1991. Potentials and limits of vegetation indices for LAI and APAR assessment. Remote Sensing of Environment, 35(2-3): 161-173.

- Bordbar, S.K. and Mortazavi Jahromi, S.M., 2006. Carbon sequestration potential of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh and Acacia salicina Lindl. plantation in western areas of Fars province. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 21(3): 110-122 (In Persian).

- Cairns, M.A., Olmsted, I., Granados, J. and Argaez, J., 2003. Composition and aboveground tree biomass of a dry semi-evergreen forest on Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. Forest Ecology and Management, 186(1-3): 125-132.

- Chen, J.M., Rich, P.M., Gower, S.T., Norman, J.M. and Plummer, S., 1996. Leaf area index of boreal forests: Theory, techniques, and measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102(6): 429-443.

- Espinosa, M., Acuna, E., Cancino, J., Monoz, F. and Perry, A.D., 2005. Carbon sink potential of radiata pine plantations in Chile. Forestry, 78(1): 11-19.

- Firuzinezhad, M., Tarahi, A.A. and Abdolkhani, A., 2013. Comparison of classification algorithms for land-use mapping: A case study of woodlands Maroon-Behbahan. First National Conference on Strategies for Achieving Sustainable Development in the Agricultural, Natural Resources and the Environment, Tehran. 13 June, pp: 150-158 (In Persian). 

- Gao, X., Huete, A.R. and Miura, T., 2000. Optical-biophysical relationships of vegetation spectra without background contamination. Remote Sensing of Environment, 74(12): 609-620.

- Ghasemi, N., Sahebi, M. and Mohammadzadeh, A., 2011. A review on biomass estimation methods using synthetic aperture radar data. International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences, 1(4): 776-788.

- Jin, Y., Yang, X., Qiu, J., Li, J., Gao, T., Wu, Q., Zhao, F., Ma, H., Yu, H. and Xu, B., 2014. Remote Sensing-Based Biomass Estimation and its Spatio-Temporal Variations in Temperate Grassland, Northern China. Remote Sensing, 6(2): 1496-1513.

- Kabiri, K., 2009. Comparison of carbon sequestration and its spatial pattern in the above-Ground woody compartment of a pure and mixed Beech forest (A case study of Gorazbon forest, north of Iran). Ph.D. thesis, University of Tehran, 120p (In Persian).

- Karami, J., Shataee Joibary, Sh. and Hosseini, S.M., 2010. Capability assessment of IKONOS images for urban vegetation mapping. Journal of Wood and Forest Science and Technology, 17(2): 89-105 (In Persian).

- Laclau, P., 2003. Biomass and carbon sequestration and of ponderosa pine plantation and native cypress forest in northwest Patagona. Forest Ecology and Management, 181(28): 17-25.

- Main-Knorn, M., Moisen, G.G., Healey, S.P., Keeton, W.S., Freeman, E.A. and Hostert, P., 2011. Evaluating the Remote Sensing and Inventory-Based Estimation of Biomass in the Western Carpathians. Remote Sensing, 3(12): 1427-1446.

- Maudie, A., Bannari, A., Deguise, J.C., McNairn, H. and Staenz, K., 1999. Application of hyperspectral remote sensing for LAI estimation in Precision Farming. Proceeding of the 23rd Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing – 10e Congres de l’Association Quebecoise de Teledetection, Quebec City, Canada, pp: 21-25.

- Momeni, A., 2013. Urban Forest Canopy Estimated Using Different Methods Field and Remote Sensing Data QuickBird and UltraCAMD. M.Sc. thesis, University of Tarbiat Modares, 89p (In Persian).

- Ouma, M. and Tateishi, R., 2006. Application of regression tree method for continental percent tree cover mapping. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Remote Sensing Society of Japan (RSSJ), Chiba University, Chiba, Japan, pp. 9-10.

- Panahi, P., Pourhashemi, M. and Hassani Nejad, M., 2011. Estimation of leaf biomass and leaf carbon sequestration of Pistacia atlantica in National Botanical Garden of Iran. Iranian Journal of Forest, 3(1): 1-12 (In Persian).

- Pourhashemi, M., Eskandari, S., Dehghani, M., Najafi, T., Asadi, A. and Panahi, P., 2012. Biomass and leaf area index of Caucasian Hackberry (Celtis caucasica Willd.) in Taileh urban forest, Sanandaj, Iran. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 19(4): 609-620 (In Persian).

- Porter, T.F., Chen, C., Long, J.A., Lawrence, R.L. and Sowell, B.F., 2014. Estimating biomass on CRP pastureland: A comparison of remote sensing techniques. Biomass and Bioenergy, 66: 268-274.

- Psomas, A., Kneubuhler, M., Huber, S., Itten, K. and Zimmermann, N.E., 2011. Hyperspectral remote sensing for estimating aboveground biomass and for exploring species richness patterns of grassland habitats. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 32(24): 9007-9031.

- Rafii, Y., Alavipanah, S.K., Malekmohammadi, B., Ramazani Mehrian, M. and Nasiri, H., 2012. Producing land cover maps using remote sensing and decision tree algorithm (Case study: Bakhtegan national park and wildlife refuge). Geography and Environmental Planning Journal, 47(3): 23-28 (In Persian).

- Sellers, P.J., 1998. Canopy reflectance, photosynthesis and transpiration. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 6(12): 1335-1372.

- Steininger, M.K., 2000. Satellite estimation of tropical secondary forest aboveground biomass data from Brazil and Bolivia. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 21:1139-1157.

- Thenkabail, P.S., Stucky, N., Griscom, B.W., Ashton, M.S., Diels, J., Vander, A., Meer, B. and Enclonga, E., 2004. Biomass estimations and carbon stock calculations in the oil palm plantations of African derived savannas using IKONOS data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 25(10): 5447-5472.

- Tian, D., Yongtao, H., Armistead, R. and Yuhang, W., 2004. Impacts of Biomass Burning Emissions on Ambient pm2.5 in the Southeastern United States Using cmaq. School of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA, 6p.

- Todd, S.W., Hoffer, R.M. and Milchunas, D.G., 1998. Biomass estimation on grazed and ungrazed rangelands using spectral indices. International Journal of Remote sensing, 19(25): 427-438.

- Trakunpinut, J., Gajaseni, N. and Ruankawe, N., 2007. Carbon sequestration potential in aboveground biomass of Thong Pha Phum national forest, Thailand. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 5(9): 10-23.

- Tucker, C.J., 1979. Red and photographic infrared linear combinations for monitoring vegetation. Remote Sensing of Environment, 8(10): 127-150.

- Varamesh, S. Hosseini, S.M., Abdi. N. and Akbarian, M., 2009. Increment of soil carbon sequestration due to forestation and its relation with some physical and chemical factors of soil. Iranian Journal of Forest, 2(4): 11-23 (In Persian).

- Zhao, K., Popescu, S. and Nelson, R., 2009. Lidar remote sensing of forest biomass: A scale-invariant estimation approach using. Remote Sensing of Environment, 113: 182-196.

- Zhou, J.J., Zhong, Z., Qingxia, Z., Jun, Z. and Haize, W., 2013. Quantification of aboveground forest biomass using Quickbird imagery, topographic variables, and field data. Remote Sensing, 7(1): 52-65.