تأثیر تغییر کاربری زمین بر کارکرد اکوهیدرولوژیک تاج‌پوشش در جنگل بلوط ایرانی (Quercus brantii Lindl)، حوضه آبخیز قلعه‌گل استان لرستان

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه جنگل‌داری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

2 دانشیار پژوهش، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی

3 دانشیار، گروه جنگل‌داری، دانشکده علوم جنگل، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

تغییر کاربری زمین بر کارکرد اکوهیدرولوژیک تاج‌پوشش تأثیر به‌سزایی دارد. این پژوهش در چهار کاربری متداول زمین شامل جنگل به‌نسبت مطلوب، جنگل تخریب‌شده، جنگل زراعت‌شده و باغ که نتیجه تغییر کاربری جنگل بلوط ایرانی (Quercus brantii Lindl.) در حوضه آبخیز قلعه‌‌گل (خرم‌آباد، لرستان) بودند، انجام شد. بارش و تاج‌بارش به‌مدت یک سال اندازه‌گیری شدند. اندازه‌گیری بارش، با نصب چهار جمع‌آوری‌کننده بارش در عرصه باز مجاور کاربری‌های مورد نظر انجام شد. برای اندازه‌گیری تاج‌بارش، در هریک از کاربری‌ها 12 درخت به‌طور تصادفی انتخاب شدند و زیر تاج هر درخت چهار جمع‌آوری‌کننده تاج‌بارش نصب شد. مشخصه‌های کمی درختان با انتخاب 15 قطعه‌نمونه به مساحت 2500 متر مربع در هریک از کاربری‌ها اندازه‌گیری شد. براساس نتایج، میزان بارش سالانه 526/3 میلی‌متر بود. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که تفاوت معنی‌داری بین مقادیر تاج‌بارش و اتلاف تاجی در کاربری‌های بررسی‌شده شامل جنگل به‌نسبت مطلوب (353/9 و 172/4 میلی‌متر)، جنگل تخریب‌شده (403 و 123/4 میلی‌متر)، جنگل زراعت‌شده (429/8 و 96/5 میلی‌متر) و جنگل تبدیل‌شده به باغ (418/3 و 108 میلی‌متر) در سطح اطمینان 95 درصد وجود داشت. کارکرد اکوهیدرولوژیک تاج‌پوشش در جنگل به‌نسبت مطلوب (با انبوهی تاج‌پوشش 60 درصد و تراکم 212 اصله در هکتار) در مقایسه با جنگل تخریب‌شده (با انبوهی تاج‌پوشش 26 درصد و تراکم 144 اصله در هکتار) و جنگل زراعت‌شده (با انبوهی تاج‌پوشش 11 درصد و تراکم 52 اصله در هکتار) با کمترین تأثیر منفی مواجه بود. اجزای مدل‌های رگرسیون نشان دادند که برآورد اتلاف تاجی با استفاده از بارش (o/794< r2<o/856) در مقایسه با قطر برابر سینه (o/794< r2<o/856) دقت بیشتری داشت. شناختی که یافته‌های این پژوهش از کارکرد اکوهیدرولوژیک تاج‌پوشش ارائه می‌کند، می‌تواند در مدیریت منابع جنگلی برای تنظیم روابط بین تاج‌پوشش و چرخه آب به‌کار گرفته شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Impact of landuse change on ecohydrological function of canopy in Brant`s oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) forest in Ghale-gol watershed, Lorestan

نویسندگان [English]

  • somayeh Ghorbani 1
  • Mohammad Hojjati 1
  • khosro Sagheb Talebi 2
  • Sha'ban Shataee 3
1 Ph.D. Student Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University
2 Associate Prof., Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO)
3 Associate Prof., Department of Forestry, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
چکیده [English]

Ecohydrological functions of canopy are significantly influenced by landuse change. This study was conducted across four current landuse types within the Gale-gol watershed (Khorramabad, Lorestan), including semi-natural forest, disturbed forest, forest farming, and orchards established on converted Brant`s oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) stands. Field measurements of precipitation (P) and T were made over a period of 12 months starting from January 2013. Four rain collectors were placed in an open area adjacent to each of the landuse types to measure P. In addition, 12 trees were randomly chosen for each of the landuses and four throughfall collectors were installed under the canopy of each tree to measure T. Tree parameters were measured using 15 sample plots of 2500 m2 for each landuse type. I and S were estimated using P and T measured data. The results showed a rate of annual P = 526.3 mm. Furthermore, ANOVA results revealed an outstanding difference between T and I across four investigated landuses including semi-natural forest (T = 353.9, I=172.4 mm), disturbed forest (T = 403.0, I = 123.4 mm), forest farming (T = 429.8, I = 96.5 mm), and orchards (T = 418.3, I = 108.0 mm) at 5 percent significance level. The ecohydrological functions of canopy in semi-natural forest (with 60% canopy and a density of 212 tree/ha) were associated with the minimum negative effects when compared to forest farming (with 26% canopy and a density of 144 tree/ha) and disturbed forest (with 11% canopy and a density of 52 tree/ha). The components of Linear Regression models also proved that the I estimated by P (0.794 < r2 < 0.856) is more accurate than DBH (0.654 < r2 < 0.837). The findings of this study are concluded to improve the existing understanding of ecohydrological canopy function. This function can be implemented as a part of forest resources management to regulate the relationship between canopy and water resources cycle.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • canopy water storage capacity
  • interception loss
  • modeling
  • throughfall
  • Zagros
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