فرصت‌ها و تهدیدها در بهره‌برداری از محصولات غیرچوبی در جنگل‌های شهرستان بانه

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه جنگل‌داری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

2 دانشیار، گروه جنگل‌داری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

3 عضو هیئت علمی، دانشگاه جامع علمی- کاربردی، واحد خراسان رضوی

4 استادیار، مرکز پژوهش و توسعه جنگلهای زاگرس شمالی، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه کردستان

چکیده

در جنگل‌های زاگرس جنبه‌های ‌محیط زیستی، حفاظتی، جلوگیری از فرسایش و پتانسیل تولید محصولات غیرچوبی دارای ارزش بیشتری نسبت به تولید چوب هستند. هدف از این پژوهش سیاست‌گذاری و برنامه‌ریزی بهره‌برداری از محصولات غیرچوبی گزو، مازوج و بذر برودار بود. برای انجام این پژوهش سامان‌های عرفی گندمان، میرحسام و کوخ مامو از روستاهای توابع بخش آرمرده شهرستان بانه استان کردستان انتخاب شدند. به کمک نظرسنجی از دست‌اندرکاران بوم‌سازگان به‌شیوه نمونه‌گیری هدفمند، تحلیل چهارگانه سوآت انجام شد. جامعه آماری شامل 12 نفر از جوامع محلی و 18 نفر از کارشناسان خبره و صاحب‌نظر بودند. براساس نتایج تحلیل سوآت و ماتریس ارزیابی موقعیت و اقدام راهبردی برای محصولات غیرچوبی مورد پژوهش، راهبرد مدیریتی (تهاجمی، رقابتی، تدافعی یا محافظه‌کارانه) مشخص شد. نتایج نشان داد که برای بهره‌برداری گزو مهمترین قوت، ضعف، فرصت و تهدید به‌ترتیب عبارت بودند از: پذیرش اجتماعی جوامع محلی، فرسایش خاک، کاهش مهاجرت روستا به شهر و آلودگی ناشی از ریزگردها. در رابطه با بهره‌برداری گال مازوج این موارد به‌ترتیب شامل اشتغال و درآمد بیشتر اعضای خانوار، جمع‌آوری توسط افراد غیربومی و آسیب به جنگل، کاهش مهاجرت از روستا به شهر، وجود دلالان و عدم وجود شرکت‌های تعاونی بهره‌برداری محصولات غیرچوبی بودند. همچنین مهم‌ترین قوت، ضعف، فرصت و تهدید برای جمع‌آوری بذر برودار به‌ترتیب عبارت بودند از: تأمین خوراک دام روستاییان، احتمال از بین رفتن زادآوری دانه‌زاد جنگل، ایجاد معیشت جایگزین و به خطر افتادن استمرار و پایداری جنگل. درنهایت، با تحلیل نظرات کارشناسان، راهبرد مدیریتی تهاجمی برای بهره‌برداری از محصول غیرچوبی گزو و مازو و راهبرد مدیریتی رقابتی برای بهره‌برداری از بذر درختان برودار ارایه شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Opportunities and threats in utilization of non-wood products in Baneh forests

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maziar Heidari 1
  • Majid Lotfalian 2
  • Morteza Tashakori 3
  • Ahmad Valipour 4
1 Ph.D. Student, Forestry Department, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University
2 Associate Prof., Forestry Department, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University
3 Member of Scientific Board, University of Applied Science and Technology, Razavi Khorasan Affiliate
4 Assistant Prof., The Center for Research and Development of Northern Zagros Forests,, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan
چکیده [English]

Non-wood forest products (NWFPs) and environmental values are preferred to woody products in Zagros forests. This study aimed to plan a utilization policy for NWFPs including Gazu, Mazouj and acorns. Therefore, three villages (Gandoman, Mirhesam and Kokh-e Mamo) in the Armardeh municipality in southwest of the city of Baneh in the Kurdistan province of Iran were investigated. The SWOT analysis technique was applied for planning. Field data were collected via an empirical survey based mainly on face-to-face interviews and questionnaires distributed amongst the ecosystem stakeholders. Respondents were selected among stakeholders of local community (12 individuals of local people and 18 individuals of experts). The results of SWOT and Space Matrix analyses revealed that an aggressive, competitive, defensive and conservative strategy is appropriate for NWFP utilization. Results also showed that the most important strength, weakness, opportunity, and threats concerning the utilization of Gazu included social acceptance from local communities, soil erosion, reduction of rural-urban migration, and air pollution due to dust storm, respectively. For Mazouj, utilization those factors included household’s income, collection by non-local people (resulted in conflicts and tree damages), people motivation for participatory management, and lack of marketing and formal supports, respectively. Finally, livestock feeding, damaging to high forest regeneration, creating alternative livelihoods, and jeopardizing the continuity and sustainability of the forest are m to be of major concern when utilizing acorns. By analyzing the opinions of experts, an aggressive management strategy for the utilization of Gazu and Mazouj and a competitive management strategy for acorn are prescribed by this study.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • SWOT
  • Northern Zagros forests
  • weakness
  • Strength
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