بررسی نقش محصولات غیر‌چوبی جنگل در کاهش فقر جوامع محلی جنگل‌های زاگرس شمالی (تحلیل میدان نیروی چالش‌های موجود)

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری جنگل‌داری و اقتصاد جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد گروه جنگل‌داری و اقتصاد جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

3 دانش‌آموخته محیط زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

4 دانشجوی دکتری جنگل شناسی و اکولوژی جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

محصولات غیرچوبی جنگل نقش بسیار مهمی در حمایت از معیشت خانوار و امنیت غذایی جوامع ایفا می‌کنند. معیشت جوامع روستایی ساکن در جنگل‌های زاگرس شمالی به­دلیل فقدان عرصه‌های تولیدی و اقتصادی به میزان زیادی وابسته به جنگل است. این مطالعه در سه روستای جنگلی شهرستان بانه استان کردستان برای بررسی مشکلات و چالش‌های بهره‌برداری محصولات غیر‌چوبی جنگل توسط ارزیابی مشارکتی منابع طبیعی انجام شد. در این تحقیق از تحلیل میدان نیرو به ­عنوان چارچوب نظری استفاده شد. همچنین از پرسشنامه، مصاحبه‌ها، بحث گروهی و طوفان اندیشه برای جمع‌آوری اطلاعات در زمینه میزان و نحوه برداشت محصولات استفاده شد. برآورد ارزش علوفه درختی از طریق روش هزینه جایگزین و ارزش سایر محصولات برداشتی از طریق روش مستقیم و قیمت‌های بازاری برآورد شد. برپایه نتایج، متوسط درآمد سالانه هر خانوار از محل برداشت محصولات علوفه درختی، هیزم، گز درختی (گزو)، گال مازوج و بذر بلوط حدود 8510000 ریال بود. بیشتر از 50‌ درصد این میزان درآمد در اقتصاد معیشتی به مصرف می­ رسد و بقیه درآمد از محل فروش محصولات به دست می‌آید. مهمترین مشکلات و راه‌کارها در زمینه بهره‌بردای محصولات غیرچوبی از دید بهره‌برداران محلی عبارتند از کمبود مقررات اداری برای حمایت از بهره‌برداران محلی، خشکسالی، تخریب جنگل، عدم وجود شبکه‌های بازاریابی و چرای بیش از حد دام. برای مقابله با این مشکلات، اثر‌بخش‌ترین اقدامات در چارچوب مدیریت تلفیقی منابع طبیعی، تقویت تشکل‌های بهره‌برداری جنگل‌نشینان، توسعه شرایط بازاریابی و فروش، توسعه کارگاه‌های کوچک و صنایع تبدیل و فرآوری در منطقه و ساماندهی پروانه‌های بهره‌برداری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of non-timber forest products and their contribution to poverty alleviation of rural communities in northern Zagros Forests (Field force analysis of issues and problems)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Jalal Henareh Khalyani 1
  • Manouchehr Namiranian 2
  • Vahid Khodaee Tehrani 3
  • Mohsen Javanmiri pour 4
1 Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Prof., Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Iran
3 Environment Graduated, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) play an important role in supporting rural livelihoods and food security. Due to a shortage of productive and arable lands and the resulting poverty, many rural households in northern Zagros forests follow a livelihood strategy which is highly dependent on forest products. This study was conducted to 1) investigate challenges and conflicts of NTFPs utilization, which were tested by participatory appraisal of natural resources in three forested villages in Baneh, Kurdistan province. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect data. Field force analysis was used as a theoretical framework. Interviews, questionnaires, brainstorming and group discussion techniques were used. Value of tree fodder was evaluated by Replacement cost method, whereas direct-cost pricing method was used for other products. Results showed that the main product of harvesting across the study area include oak tree fodder, firewood, Gazou, acorn and Mazooj Gaal.  NTFP income of the households’ was estimated to be 8510000 IRR.  Moreover, more than 50% of collected NTFPs-related household income was shown to be used for subsistence, and the rest was gained by selling the products. More subsistence income for the villagers comes from tree fodder and firewood. The most important problems with NTFPs harvesting were insufficient rules and administrative facilities, deforestation, overgrazing, drought and weakness of market network. Eventually, the main solutions to those problems towards a framework of an ‘integrated’ approach towards the natural resource management were identified as strengthening the cooperative society, development of market network and marketing service, organizing NTFPs harvesting plans and establishing the small scale agro-food industries in this area. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Participatory appraisal
  • force field analysis
  • Northern Zagros forests
  • poverty alleviation
  • NTFPs
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