ارتباط فراوانی و شدت ابتلا به ارس‌واش (.Arceuthobium oxycedri (DC.) M. Bieb) با مشخصه‌های کمی و کیفی درخت میزبان، شرایط فیزیوگرافی و فرسایش خاک

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد رشته جنگل‌شناسی و اکولوژی جنگل، دانشکده کویرشناسی، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان،‌ ایران

2 استادیار، گروه جنگل‌داری مناطق خشک، دانشکده کویرشناسی، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران

چکیده

    پژوهش پیش‌‌رو با هدف بررسی ابتلای درختان ارس به ارس‌‌واش (Arceuthobium oxycedri)، که وسیع‌ترین دامنه پراکنش را در بین گونه‌های دارواش پاکوتاه در جهان دارد، انجام شد. نمونه‌برداری در جنگل‌های حفاظت‌شده ارس منطقه پرور در سطح 400 هکتار و با استفاده از 60 قطعه‌نمونه به‌ابعاد 20×20 متر مربع به‌صورت تصادفی- سیستماتیک انجام شد. نتایج آنالیز تشخیص نشان داد که مشخصه‌های درصد پوشش علفی، جنسیت پایه‌ها، درصد شیب دامنه و حتی جهت دامنه، ارزش تشخیصی چندانی برای تعیین شدت ابتلا ندارند. برعکس، بیشترین همبستگی در صفاتی مانند بیرون‌زدگی ریشه، قطر یقه، مساحت تاج درخت، ارتفاع از سطح دریا و ارتفاع درخت مشاهده شد. ازنظر توزیع فراوانی و شدت ابتلا، کمترین فراوانی پایه‌های آلوده و کمترین شدت ابتلا به ارس‌واش در کلاسه ارتفاع فوقانی (2500 تا 2700 متر)، شدت فرسایش کم و درختان بدون بیرون‌زدگی ریشه مشاهده شد. نسبت درختان مبتلا به کل درختان در شیب‌‌های 30 تا 60 درصد و جهت‌‌های شمالی و غربی کمتر بود. براساس نتایج این پژوهش، درختان با تاج‌پوشش وسیع‌تر، ارتفاع بلندتر و قطر یقه بیشتر، حساسیت زیادتری به این گیاه انگلی دارند. بیشترین شدت ابتلا در درختان بزرگ‌تر توده مشاهده شد، به‌ویژه درختان واقع در ارتفاعات پایین‌تر و درختانی که با تخریب بوم‌سازگان و فرسایش خاک ضعیف شده بودند و بیرون‌‌زدگی ریشه‌‌ داشتند، بنابراین در صورت ادامه گسترش ارس‌واش در جنگل‌‌های ارس و عدم یافتن راهکار غیرمخرب برای کنترل جمعیت این گیاه انگلی، به‌ویژه برای مناطق با حساسیت بیشتر (مانند رویشگاه‌های کم‌ارتفاع‌تر جوامع ارس)، تخریب برخی از این جوامع در آینده‌ای نه‌چندان دور غیرقابل‌انتظار نخواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Relationship between abundance/infection intensity of dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium oxycedri (DC.) M. Bieb.) and qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the host tree, physiographic conditions, and soil erosion

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Rezanezhad 1
  • Hooman Ravanbakhsh 2
  • Davoud Kartoolinejad 2
1 M.Sc. Graduate of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Faculty of Desert Studies, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
2 Assistant Prof., Department of Arid Land Forestry, Faculty of Desert Studies, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
چکیده [English]

     Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium oxycedri) has a worldwide range of distribution amongst the dwarf mistletoe species. To investigate the effects caused by dwarf mistletoe infection on juniper trees, this study was conducted in an area of 400 hectares in the Parvar protected area, Semnan Province. Sampling was carried out using 60 quadratic plots with the area of 20×20 m2 in a randomly-systematic manner. The discriminant analysis showed that the characteristics of herb canopy cover, individual gender, slope (%), and even aspect direction are not substantially deterministic for infection intensity of dwarf mistletoe. In contrast, the highest correlation was observed in traits like root exposure, collar diameter, crown area, altitude, and tree height. The lowest frequency of infected individuals and the lowest severity of infection were observed in upper elevation class (2500-2700 m a.s.l.), low rate of soil erosion, and trees without root exposure. Moreover, the proportion of infected individuals to total trees are little on the 30-60% slopes and in north and west slope aspects. The results suggest that trees with broader canopy, higher collar diameter, and taller height are more prone to this parasite. In addition, the maximum severity of the infection is observed on larger trees, especially if the trees are located at lower elevations, faced with the degraded ecosystem and soil erosion that leads to root exposure and tree weakness. Therefore, in the case of the continuation of the spread of dwarf mistletoe in juniper forests and the lack of a non-destructive strategy to control the population of this parasitic herb, these communities would be expected to be partly degraded in the near future especially, for the higher sensitivity areas (such as lower habitats of juniper communities.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Discriminant analysis
  • DMR
  • dwarf mistletoes
  • juniper communities
  • infection intensity
  • parasitic plant

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