شناسایی و تلقیح دو گونه قارچ‌‌ میکوریز همزیست تادار (.Celtis Caucasica L) در شرایط گلخانه‌‌ای

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه جنگلداری و اقتصاد جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار، گروه جنگل‌داری و اقتصاد جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 دانشیار، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

4 استاد، گروه جنگل‌داری و اقتصاد جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

چکیده

با ‌توجه‌ به‌ ضرورت جنگل‌کاری در جنگل‌های زاگرس با گونه‌‌های بومی و استفاده از قارچ‌‌های میکوریزی همزیست بومی هر گونه، پژوهشی با موضوع تولید نهال‌‌‌های میکوریزی تلقیح‌شده با قارچ‌‌های همزیست درخت تادار (Celtis caucasica L.) انجام شد. نمونه‌‌های بذر و خاک ریزوسفر تادار از رویشگاه چهارطاق اردل در استان چهارمحال و بختیاری تهیه شدند. در آزمایشگاه مشخص شد که دو گونه قارچ میکوریز Funneliformis geosporum و Claroideoglomus etunicatum فراوانی مناسبی در خاک ناحیه ریزوسفر داشتند. پس از جداسازی اسپورها با استفاده از الک مرطوب و براساس صفاتی مانند اندازه و رنگ اسپور، ریسه متصل به اسپور و لایه‌های دیواره سلولی اسپور، قارچ‌ها به‌کمک میکروسکوپ نوری و استریومیکروسکوپ شناسایی شدند و برای اولین‌بار از ریزوسفر درخت تادار در ایران گزارش شدند. سپس، اسپور این دو گونه قارچ میکوریزی با گیاه ذرت در گلخانه به‌‌صورت گلدانی تکثیر شد. پس از انبوه‌سازی، اسپورها با بذر تادار به‌صورت تیمارهای جداگانه و تیمار ترکیبی دو گونه تلقیح شدند. پس از رشد نهال‌‌ها به‌مدت شش ماه، صفات رویشی و کلنیزاسیون ریشه تادار بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد که قارچ‌‌های میکوریزی بر تمامی صفات ریخت­شناسی نهال‌‌ها، اثری مثبت و معنی‌‌دار داشتند. در اغلب صفات اندازه‌‌گیری‌‌شده، بیشترین اثر مربوط به تیمار ترکیب دو قارچ بود. به‌‌طور کلی در این پژوهش، مقدار شاخص‌‌های رویشی نهال‌‌های میکوریزی نسبت به نهال‌‌های شاهد بیشتر بود، بنابراین می‌‌توان گفت استفاده از نهال‌‌های میکوریزی راهکاری مناسب و مقرون‌به‌‌صرفه‏ ‌‌برای افزایش شانس موفقیت در ‌‌جنگل‌کاری‌ها و نیز احیاء مناطق تخریب‌شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification and inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi symbiosis to Caucasian hackberry (Celtis Caucasica L.) under greenhouse conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Tooba Sepahvand 1
  • Vahid Etemad 2
  • Mohammad Matinizadeh 3
  • Anoushirvan Shirvany 2
  • Gh. Zahedi Amiri 4
1 Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, faculty of natural resources, college of agriculture and natural resources, University of Tehran
2 Associate Prof., Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Associate Prof., Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agriculture Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
4 Prof., Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Motivated by the general necessity of reforestation in the Zagros forest using native species under limited water resources, this study was conducted on the production of mycorrhizal inoculated-seedlings of Caucasian hackberry (Celtis Caucasica L). Seed samples and rhizosphere were selected from a site in the Chahartagh Ardal of the Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province. Two species of mycorrhizal fungi, namely Funneliformis geosporum andClaroideoglomus etunicatum, showed high frequencies in the rhizosphere of C. Caucasica sites. Following isolation by wet sieve method, identification was done according to morphological properties such as spore size and color, spore-attached ridge, and spore cell wall layers, which led to their first-ever description from rhizospheres of C. caucasica in Iran. Next step was to use trap culture method for culturing spores of mycorrhizal fungus in the greenhouse. After propagation of the species, they were inoculated with C. Caucasica seeds. Growth characteristics and root colonization of the seedlings were then assessed during a period of 6 months. The results demonstrated a significant and positive effect of the mycorrhizal fungi on all traits. For most of the measured traits, the highest value was observed in the combined fungus treatment. Therefore, mychorrhizal seedlings were concluded to be advantageous compared with control seedlings. In addition, the use of mychorrhizal seedlings is concluded as a suitable and cost-effective solution to increase the success rates of afforestation as well as the restoration of degraded areas.

سوم

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arbuscular mycorrhizal
  • Ardal
  • morphological traits
  • symbiosis

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