مقایسه متغیرهای محیطی و پوشش گیاهی در رویشگاه‌های ممرز (Carpinus betulus) و کچف (C. × schuschaensis) در جنگل‌های نقیبده و مزده ساری و معرفی جامعه جدید کچف

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جنگل‌شناسی و اکولوژی جنگل، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه جنگل‌داری، دانشکده کویرشناسی دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران

3 استادیار پژوهشی، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

4 مربی، گروه مدیریت مناطق خشک، دانشکده کویرشناسی دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران

چکیده

سرده ممرز (Carpinus L.) از تاکسون­‌های متداول جنگل‌های معتدله نیمکره شمالی است که سه گونه از آن (ممرز، لور و کچف) در جنگل‌­های هیرکانی انتشار دارند. این گونه‌ها از عنصرهای اصلی برخی از جوامع گیاهی هیرکانی به‌شمار می­روند که اغلب حضور قابل توجهی دارند. در این پژوهش، ویژگی­‌های محیطی و پوشش گیاهی رویشگاه‌های کچف و ممرز در قسمت‌هایی از جنگل‌های حفاظتی منطقه نقیبده و مزده ساری مطالعه شد. داده‌های پوشش گیاهی و برخی متغیرهای محیطی با برداشت 46 قطعه‌نمونه ثبت و جمع‌آوری شدند. برداشت و تحلیل داده‌­های پوشش گیاهی بر اساس روش براون- بلانکه انجام شد. برای طبقه‌بندی پوشش گیاهی از TWINSPAN و برای تجزیه و تحلیل پوشش گیاهی در ارتباط با متغیرهای محیطی از رسته‌بندی CCA استفاده شد. بر اساس نتایج TWINSPAN، پوشش گیاهی مورد مطالعه به چهار گروه طبقه‌­بندی شد که به دو جامعه تعلق داشتند: Djazirei 1964 Querco castaneifolia-Carpinetum betuli و Zelkovo carpinifoliae-Carpinetum schuschaensis ass. nov. (جامعه جدید کچف- آزاد) با ترکیب گونه‌­های شاخص Carpinus × schuschaensis، Zelkova carpinifoliaو Pyrus boissieriana. متغیرهای توپوگرافی و بافت خاک بین دو جامعه مذکور، اختلاف معنی‌­دار داشتند. به‌طوری که جامعه اول در دامنه‌های به‌­نسبت کم‌­شیب (متوسط 41 درصد) با جهت جنوب­ غربی و خاک‌هایی با درصد سیلت بیشتر حضور داشت، اما جامعه دوم در دامنه‌های پرشیب (متوسط 74 درصد) با جهت جنوب ­شرقی و خاک‌هایی با درصد شن بیشتر مستقر شده بود. تاج‌پوشش جامعه دوم به‌طور معنی‌داری بیشتر از جامعه اول بود. این دو جامعه در اتحادیه Parrotio-Carpinion Djazirei 1964 قرار گرفتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A comparison of environmental and vegetation variables between Carpinus betulus and C. × schuschaensis stands in Naghibdeh and Mazdeh forests (Sari, Mazandaran) and introducing a new hornbeam association

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Borji 1
  • Hooman Ravanbakhsh 2
  • Behnam Hamzeh’ee 3
  • Mojtaba Amiri 2
  • Mohammad Kia Kianian 4
1 M.Sc. Student of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
2 Assistant Prof., Department of Forestry, Faculty of Desert Studies, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
3 Assistant Prof., Research institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
4 Senior Expert, Department of Desert and Arid Land Management, Faculty of Desert Studies, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The genus Carpinus is considered as a common taxon in the temperate forests of the northern hemisphere, of which three species (Carpinus betulus, C. orientalis and C.× schuschaensis) were reported from the Hyrcanian forests of Iran. These are the main species of a number of Hyrcanian plant associations and usually appear with a high frequency. In this research, vegetation and the environmental conditions of C. betulus and C.× schuschaensis habitats were studied at the protected areas of Naghibdeh and Mazdeh forests. Data was collected using 46 relevés. Data collection and analysis were performed according to the Braun-Blanquet method. TWINSPAN was used to classify and analyze the vegetation data, and CCA ordination was used for the species-environment analysis. Based on the results, the vegetation was classified into four groups belonging to two associations: Querco castaneifolia-Carpinetum betuli Djazirei 1964 and Zelkovo carpinifoliae-Carpinetum schuschaensis ass. nov. in which the characteristic species of the new association were Carpinus× schuschaensis, Zelkova carpinifolia and Pyrus boissieriana. The topographic and soil texture variables were significantly different between the two communities. The first association was distributed on fairly low-gradient slopes (41% in average) with southwest aspect and in the soils with a higher percentage of silt, whereas the second one was established on steeper slopes (74% in average) with southeastern aspect and in the soils with more sand. The canopy percentage of the second association was significantly higher than that of the first one. These two associations are placed in the Parrotio-Carpinion Djazirei 1964.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alborz
  • Hyrcanian
  • Phytosociology
  • species-environment relationships
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