عنوان مقاله [English]
The canopy architecture of different forest trees results in different species interception, quantity and quality of litterfall. Litterfall characteristics affect thickness of organic layer, water storage potential and runoff due to different decomposition rate in habitat conditions. Furthermore, throughfall content and water infiltration of litter are different through time as a result of differences in the evapotranspiration potential, leaf area index (LAI), canopy coverage, tree diameter, stand stages and other geographic factors. This paper was aimed to examine throughfall and water infiltrated of litter changes amongst three important species of Hyrcanian forest over a year. For this purpose, individual hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), velvet maple (Acer velutinum Boiss.) and chestnut-leaved oak (Quercus castaneifolia C. A. Mey.) species were selected in a mixed stand in Shast-Kalateh Forest, and quantity of water passing through the canopy of individual tree and organic litter layer beneath them were investigated with 9 throughfall collectors and 18 forest floor infiltration collectors after each rainfall event over a year. The results showed that species and times are two important factors in changing water balance. The hornbeam and maple species have the most throughfall and litter water contents, respectively (hornbeam with 71.1 % of throughfall and maple with 40.5 % of water infiltration of litter). The litter water infiltration of hornbeam and velvet maple in non-growing season were higher compared to the growing season, while throughfall showed no significant difference. The results of this study are concluded to be helpful for managers to regulate the stand composition as a reaction to the increasing water crisis.
- Attarod, P., Sadeghi, S.M.M., Pypker, T.G., Bagheri, H., Bagheri, M. and Bayramzadeh, V., 2015. Needle-leaved trees impacts on rainfall interception and canopy storage capacity in an arid environment. New Forests, 46: 339-355.
- Brantley, S.T., Bolstad, P.V., Sobek, C., Laseter, S., Novick, K.A., Vose, J.M. and Miniat, C.F., 2015. Variation in canopy and litter interception across a forest chronosequence in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Proceedings of the 5th Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds North Charleston. South Carolina, 2-6 March. 2008: 284-285.
- Bulcock, H.H. and Jewitt, G.P., 2012. Field data collection and analysis of canopy and litter interception in commercial forest plantations in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands, South Africa. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16: 3717-3728.
- Crockford, R.H. and Richardson, D.P., 2000. Partitioning of rainfall into throughfall, stemflow, and interception: effect of forest type, ground cover and climate. Hydrological Processes, 14: 2903-2920.
- David, J., Valente, F. and Gash, J.H.C., 2005. Evaporation of Intercepted Rainfall, in: Encyclopedia of Hydrological Science, edited by: Anderson, M.G., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, West Sussex, England, chapter 43: 627-634.
- Fathizadeh, O., Attarod, P., Zahedi-Amiri, Gh. and Darvishdefat, A.A., 2015. Temporal stability of spatial pattern of throughfall of individual Persian Oak in the Zagros growing area (Case study: forests around Ilam). Journal of Forest and Wood Products (Iranian Journal of Natural Resources), 67(3): 397-409 (In Persian).
- Ford, E.D. and Deans, J.D., 1978. The effect of canopy structure on stem flow, throughfall and interception loss in a young Sitka spruce plantation. Journal of Applied Ecology, 15: 905-917.
- Gerrits, A.M.J., Pfister, L. and Savenije, H.H.G., 2010. Spatial and temporal variability of canopy and forest floor interception in a beech forest. Hydrological Processes, 24: 3011-3025.
- Ghamghami, M., Ghahreman, N. and Hejabi, S., 2015. Detection of climate change effect on meteorological droughts in northwest of Iran. Journal of Earth and Space Physics, 1: 167-184 (In Persian).
- Ghorbani, S., 2009. Estimation of interception, throughfall and stemflow in natural oriental beech stand (Shastkalateh forest). M.Sc. thesis, Faculty of Natural Resources, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, 103p (In Persian).
- Hemmati, V., Payam, H., Mattaji, A., Akef, M., Babaii-Kafaii, S. and Fallahchaayi, M.M., 2012. Interception, throughfall and stem flow of the oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) in Caspian area (Siahkal- Shenroud forests). Journal of Sciences and Techniques in Natural Resources, 6(4): 39-52 (In Persian).
- Holder, C.D., 2012. The relationship between leaf hydrophobicity, water droplet retention, and leaf angle of common species in a semi-arid region of the western United States. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 152: 11-16.
- Holder, C.D., 2013. Effects of leaf hydrophobicity and water droplet retention on canopy storage capacity. Ecohydrology, 6(3): 483-490.
- Iroume, A. and Huber, A., 2001. Comparison of interception losses in a broadleaved native forest and a Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir) plantation in the Andes Mountains of southern Chile. Hydrological Processes, 16: 2347-2361.
-Llorens, P. and Domingo, F., 2007. Rainfall partitioning by vegetation under Mediterranean rainfall: Examples from a young and an old-growth Dougla-fir forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 130: 113-129.
- Moayeri, M.H., Hatami, N. and Gholami, Gh.A., 2014. Comparison of estimating methods the allowable cut in the district one of Dr. Bahramnia forest management plan. Journal of Wood and Forest Science and Technology, 21(3): 93-111 (In Persian).
- Moslehi, M., Habashi, H., Khormali, F. and Rahani, R., 2012. Evaluation of throughfall and interception in eastern Hyrcanian beech forest. Journal of Forest and Wood Products (Iranian Journal of Natural Resources), 64(3): 319-330 (In Persian).
- Muzylo, A., Llorens, P., Valente, F., Keizer, J.J., Domingo, F. and Gash, J.H.C., 2009. Review of rainfall interception modeling. Journal of Hydrology, 370: 191-206.
- Neris, J., Tejedor, M., Rodríguez, M., Fuentes, J. and Jiménez, C., 2013. Effect of forest floor characteristics on water repellency, infiltration, runoff and soil loss in Andisols of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). Catena, 108: 50-57.
- Panahi, P., Pourhashemi, M. and Hasaninejad, M., 2012. Estimation of leaf ecological indices of tree species in Hyrcanian collection of National Botanical Garden of Iran. Proceedings of the 2nh Conference on Design and Environmental Planning and Management. University of Tehran, Iran, 15-16 May 2012: 9p (In Persian).
- Rahmani, R., Ghorbani, S. and Naghash Zargaran, M., 2014. Measurement and modeling litter biomass and leaf area index using allometry in a Beech-Hornbeam stand in the mid-elevation of the Hyrcanian region, Iran. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 22(4): 687-701 (In Persian).
- Sadeghi, S.M.M., Attarod, P. and Pypker, T.G., 2015. Differences in rainfall interception during the growing and non-growing seasons in a Fraxinus rotundifolia plantation located in a semiarid climate. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 17: 145-156.
- Sadeghi, S.M.M. and Attarod, P., 2016. Effect of Pinus eldarica and Cupressus arizonica plantation on interception loss in semiarid climate. Journal of Forest and Wood Products (Iranian Journal of Natural Resources), 68(3): 641-653 (In Persian).
- Sun, X., Wang, G., Lin, Y., Liu, L. and Gao, Y., 2013. Intercepted rainfall in Abies fabri forest with different-aged stands in southwestern China. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 37: 495-504.
- Toba, T. and Ohta, T., 2005. An observational study of the factors that influence interception loss in boreal and temperate forests. Journal of Hydrology, 313: 208-220.
- Zagyvaine-Kiss, K.A., Kalicz, P., Csafordi, P. and Gribovczki, Z., 2014. Forest litter interception model for a Sessile Oak forest. Acta Silvatica et Lignaria Hungarica, 10(1): 91-101.