تغییرات ماهانه کمیت تاج‌بارش و آب ‌نفوذی به لاشریزه در توده‌های جنگلی هیرکانی

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه جنگل‌شناسی و اکولوژی جنگل، دانشکده علوم جنگل، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه جنگل‌شناسی و اکولوژی جنگل، دانشکده علوم جنگل، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

3 دانشیار پژوهش، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

4 کارشناس ارشد جنگل‌داری، دانشکده علوم جنگل، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

معماری خاص تاج‌­پوشش درختان جنگلی از یک‌‌سو منجر به ربایش ‌تاجی متفاوت شده و از سوی دیگر کمیت و کیفیت لاشریزه را تغییر خواهد داد که با توجه به شرایط مختلف تجزیه رویشگاه منجر به تفاوت ضخامت لایه آلی لاشریزه و پتانسیل نگهداری آب یا رواناب متفاوت می‌شود. مقدار تاج‌بارش و آب ‌نفوذی به­ لاشریزه در یک قلمرو جغرافیایی نیز به‌دلیل تغییر در پتانسیل تبخیر و تعرق، شاخص ‌سطح ‌برگ، درصد تاج‌پوشش، قطر درختان، اشکوب‌بندی و عامل‌های دیگر طی زمان متفاوت است. هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی تغییرات تاج‌بارش و آب ‌نفوذی به لاشریزه بین سه گونه مهم جنگل‌های هیرکانی طی یک سال بود. ابتدا تک‌درختانی از گونه‌های ممرز (Carpinus betulus)، پلت (Acer velutinum) و بلندمازو (Quercus castaneifolia) در توده‌‌های آمیخته سری یک جنگل شصت‌کلاته انتخاب شدند. سپس، توسط 9 و 18 جمع‌آوری‌کننده به‌ترتیب تاج‌بارش و آب ‌نفوذی به ‌لاشریزه برای هر تک‌درخت پس از هر واقعه بارش طی یک سال اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که گونه و زمان دو عامل مهم در تغییر کمیت آب عبوری از اشکوب تاج هستند. بیشترین تاج‌بارش مربوط به ممرز (71/1 درصد) و بیشترین ربایش‌ آبی ­لاشریزه مربوط به پلت (40/5 درصد) بود. در فصل بی‌برگی، ربایش‌ آبی ‌لاشریزه ممرز و پلت بیشتر از فصل دارای برگ بود، اما تاج‌بارش سه گونه با یکدیگر اختلاف معنی‌داری نداشت. نتایج این پژوهش می‌تواند مدیران جنگل را در مقابله با بحران آب از طریق تنظیم ترکیب توده یاری رساند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Monthly changes in the quantity of throughfall and water infiltration of litter in Hyrcanian forest stands

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hashem Habashi 1
  • Ramin Rahmani 2
  • Khosro Sagheb-Talebi 3
  • Elham Shabani 4
1 Associate Prof., Faculty of Forest Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
2 Associate Prof., Faculty of Forest Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
3 Associate Prof., Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
4 M.Sc. Forestry, Faculty of Forest Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The canopy architecture of different forest trees results in different species interception, quantity and quality of litterfall. Litterfall characteristics affect thickness of organic layer, water storage potential and runoff due to different decomposition rate in habitat conditions. Furthermore, throughfall content and water infiltration of litter are different through time as a result of differences in the evapotranspiration potential, leaf area index (LAI), canopy coverage, tree diameter, stand stages and other geographic factors. This paper was aimed to examine throughfall and water infiltrated of litter changes amongst three important species of Hyrcanian forest over a year. For this purpose, individual hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), velvet maple (Acer velutinum Boiss.) and chestnut-leaved oak (Quercus castaneifolia C. A. Mey.) species were selected in a mixed stand in Shast-Kalateh Forest, and quantity of water passing through the canopy of individual tree and organic litter layer beneath them were investigated with 9 throughfall collectors and 18 forest floor infiltration collectors after each rainfall event over a year. The results showed that species and times are two important factors in changing water balance. The hornbeam and maple species have the most throughfall and litter water contents, respectively (hornbeam with 71.1 % of throughfall and maple with 40.5 % of water infiltration of litter). The litter water infiltration of hornbeam and velvet maple in non-growing season were higher compared to the growing season, while throughfall showed no significant difference. The results of this study are concluded to be helpful for managers to regulate the stand composition as a reaction to the increasing water crisis.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Acer velutinum
  • Carpinus betulus
  • forest floor
  • Quercus castaneifolia
  • Shast-Kalateh Forest

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