برآورد اتلاف تاجی، ساقاب و تاج‌بارش در توده طبیعی راش شرقی (جنگل شصت‌کلاته)

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جنگل‌داری، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 دانشیار، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی

چکیده

در این پژوهش اندازه‌گیری مقادیر بارش، ساقاب و تاج‌بارش از آبان 1384 تا آبان 1385 در توده راش واقع در سری یک جنگل شصت‌کلاته گرگان از جنگل‌های هیرکانی انجام شد. ارتفاع بارش در این دوره 1/827 میلی‌متر بود. تعداد 31 اصله درخت به‌طور تصادفی انتخاب شدند. بعد از هر بارش مقادیر ساقاب و تاج‌بارش هر درخت اندازه‌گیری شد. تاج‌بارش و ساقاب به‌ترتیب40 و3/0 درصد از بارش بودند. اتلاف تاجی (تفاوت میان بارش و مجموع ساقاب و تاج‌بارش) 7/59 درصد بارش کل بود. رابطه میان بارش با ساقاب، تاج‌بارش و اتلاف تاجی بررسی شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Estimating of interception loss, stemflow and throughfall in a natural stand of oriental Beech (Shastkalateh forest)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Somayyeh Ghorbani 1
  • Ramin Rahmani 2
1 M.Sc. student of forestry, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
2 Associate Prof., Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources.
چکیده [English]

     In this study, measurements of precipitation, throughfall and stemflow fluxes were conducted from November 2005 through November 2006 within a natural stand of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) in district 1, Shastkalateh, Hyrcanian forests.Total precipitation in this period was 827.1 mm year−1. A sample of 31 trees was randomly selected. Throughfall and stemflow of each tree were collected after every precipitation. Throughfall and stemflow fluxes represented 40% and 0.3% of the precipitation, implying that interception loss (the difference between precipitation and sum of throughfall and stemflow) was 59.7%. Relation between throughfall, stemflow and interception with precipitation was invistigaited.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • precipitation؛ stemflow
  • throughfall
  • interception
  • modeling
- بی‌نام، 1364. جدول حجم گونه راش برای جنگل‌های مازندران. دفتر فنی جنگلداری سازمان جنگلها و مراتع کشور، 366 صفحه.

- دانشور، ا.، 1385. بررسی تغییرات افقی و عمودی ساختار در یک جنگل طبیعی راش (مطالعه موردی پارسل 32 جنگل آموزشی و پژوهشی شصت‌کلاته). پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، 97 صفحه.

- رستم افشار، ن.، 1375. مهندسی منابع آب. سازمان تحقیقات منابع آب، تهران، 296 صفحه.

- نقاش زرگران، م. 1380. بررسی زی‌وزن برگ، شاخص سطح برگ و رابطه آنها با برخی از ویژگی‌های توده و خاک در قطعه بررسی دائمی جنگل‌های میان‌بند خزر. پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، 67 صفحه.

- Anzhi, W., Jinzhong, L., Jianmei, L., Tiefan, P. and Changjie, J., 2005. A semi-theoretical model of canopy rainfall interception for Pinus Koraiensis Nakai. Ecological Modelling, 184: 355–361.

- Aston, A.R., 1979. Rainfall interception by eight small trees. Journal of Hydrology, 42: 383-396.

- Calheiros De Miranda, R.A. and Butler, D.R.,1986. Interception of rainfall in a hedgerow apple orchard. Journal of Hydrology, 87: 245-253.

- Cantu Silva, I. and Okumura, T., 1996. Throughfall, stemflow and interception loss in a mixed white oak forest (Quercus serrata Thunb.). Journal of Forest Research, 1: 123–129.

- Carlyle-Moses, D.E., 2004. Throughfall, stemflow, and canopy interception loss fluxes in a semi-arid Sierra Madre Oriental matorral community. Journal of Arid Environments, 58: 181-202.

- Deguchi, A., Hattori, S. and Park, H.T., 2006. The influence of seasonal changes in canopy structure on interception loss: Application of the revised Gash model. Journal of Hydrology, 318: 80-102.

- Domingo, F., Sanchez, G., Moro, M.J., Brenner, A.J. and Puigdefabregas, J., 1998. Measurement and modelling of rainfall interception by three semi-arid canopies. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 91: 275-292.

- Gash, J.H.C., 1979. An analytical model of rainfall interception by forests. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 105: 43–55.

- Germer, S., Elsenbeer, H. and Moraes, J.M., 2006. Throughfall and temporal trends of rainfall redistribution in an open tropical rainforest, south-western Amazonia (Rondonia, Brazil). Hydrology and Earth system Sciences, 10: 383-393.

- Gomez, J.A., Giraldez, J.V. and Fereres, E., 2001. Rainfall interception by olive trees in relation to leaf area. Agricultural water management, 49: 65-76.

- Helvey, J.D., 1964. Rainfall interception by hardwood forest litter in the southern Appalachians, U.S. Forest Service Research Paper, 8: 1–8.

- Hewleet, J.D. and Nutter, W.L., 1969. An outline of forest hydrology. Farsi edition, Kamyab, I. (Translator), MazandaranUniversity, 257 p.

- Hormann, G., Branding, A., Clemen, T., Herbst, M., Hinrichs, A. and Thamm, F., 1996. Calculation and simulation of wind controlled canopy interception of a beech forest in northern Germany. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 79: 131–148.

- Huang, Y.S., Chen, S.S. and Lin, T.P., 2005. Continuous monitoring of water loading of trees and canopy rainfall interception using the strain gauge method. Journal of Hydrology, 311: 1-7.

- Iida, Sh., Tanaka, T. and Sugita, M., 2005. Change of interception process due to the succession from Japanese red pine to evergreen oak. Journal of Hydrology, 315: 154-166.

- Johnson, R.C., 1990. The interception, throughfall and stemflow in a forest in Highland Scotland and the comparison with other upland forests in the U.K. Journal of Hydrology, 118: 281-287.

- Levia, D.F. Jr. and Herwitz, S.R., 2000. Physical properties of water in relation to stemflow leachate dynamics: Implications for nutrient cycling. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 30: 662–666.

- Llorens, P. and Domingo, F., 2007. Rainfall partitioning by vegetation under Mediterranean conditions: A review of studies in Europe. Journal of Hydrology, 335(1-2): 37-54.

- Loshali, D.C. and Singh, R.P., 1992. Partitioning of rainfall by three Central Himalayan forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 53: 99–105.

- Loustau, D., Berbigier, P., Granier, A. and El Hadj Moussa, F., 1992a. Interception loss, throughfall and stemflow in a maritime pine stand. I. Variability of throughfall and stemflow beneath the pine canopy. Journal of hydrology, 138: 449-467.

- Loustau, D., Berbigier, P. and Granier, A., 1992b. Interception loss, throughfall and stemflow in a maritime pine stand. II. An application of Gash's analytical model of interception. Journal of hydrology, 138: 469-485.

- Masukata, H., Ando, M. and Ogawa, H., 1990. Throughfall, stemflow and interception of rainwater in an evergreen broadleaved forest. Ecological Research, 5(3): 303-316.

- Neal, C., Robson, C.L., Bhardwaj, C.L., Conway, T., Jeffery, H.A., Neal, M., Ryland, G.P., Smith, C.J. and Walls, J., 1993. Relationships between precipitation, stemflow and throughfall for a lowland beech plantation, BlackWood, Hampshire, southern England: Findings on interception at a forest edge and the effects of storm damage. Journal of Hydrology, 146: 221–233.

- Price, A.G. and Carlyle-Moses, D.E., 2003. Measurement and modelling of growing-season canopy water fluxes in a mature mixed deciduous forest stand, southern Ontario, Canada. Agricultural and forest meteorology, 119: 69-85.

- Pypker, T.G., Bond, B.J., Link, T.E., Marks, D. and Unsworth, M.H., 2005. The importance of canopy structure in controlling the interception loss of rainfall: Examples from a young and an old-growth Douglas-fir forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 130: 113–129.

- Rowe, L.K., 1983. Rainfall interception by an evergreen beech forest, Nelson, Newzealand. Journal of hydrology, 66(1-4):143-158.

- Teklehaimanot, Z., Jarvis, P.G. and Ledger, D.C., 1991. Rainfall interception and boundary layer conductance in relation to tree spacing. Journal of Hydrology, 123: 261–278.

- Toba, T. and Ohta, T., 2005. An observational study of the factors that influence interception loss in boreal and temperate forests. Journal of Hydrology, 313: 208-220.

- Valente, F., David, J.S. and Gash, J.H.C., 1997. Modelling interception loss for two sparse eucalypt and pine forests in central Portugal using reformulated Rutter and Gash analytical models. Journal of Hydrology, 190: 141–162.

-Vertessy, R.A., Watson, F.G.R. and O′Sullivan, S.K., 2001. Factors determining relations between stand age and catchment water balance in mountain ash forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 143: 13-26.

- Viville, D., Biron, P., Granier, A., Dambrine, E. and Probst, A., 1993. Interception in a mountainous declining spruce stand in the Stengbach catchment (Vosges France). Journal of Hydrology, 144: 273–282.

- Zhang, G., Zeng, G.M., Jiang, Y.M., Huang, G.H., Li, J.B., Yao, J.M., Tan, W., Xiang, R. and Zhang, X.L., 2006. Modelling and measurement of two-layer-canopy interception losses in a subtropical evergreen forest of central-south China. Hydrology and Earth system Sciences,10: 65-77.