تأثیر توان تفکیک مکانی تصاویر هوایی پهپاد در برآورد ارتفاع درختان بنه (.Pistacia atlantica Desf)

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه سنجش‌ازدور و GIS، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناس‌‌‌ارشد، بخش منابع طبیعی و محیط‌‌زیست، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

3 دانشیار، بخش مهندسی عمران و محیط‌‌زیست، دانشکده مهندسی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

چکیده

برآورد ویژگی‌‌های زیست‌‌سنجی مانند ارتفاع تک‌‌درختان که به‌طور مستقیم روی تصاویر هوایی پهپادها قابل‌ مشاهده نیستند، دشوار است، بنابراین پژوهش پیش‌رو با هدف معرفی روشی برای برآورد ارتفاع تک‌‌درختان بنه (.Pistacia atlantica Desf) انجام شد. یک محدوده 45 هکتاری از جنگل تحقیقاتی بنه استان فارس با پهپاد فانتوم 4 تصویربرداری شد. سپس، الگوریتمی پیشنهاد شد که روی مدل رقومی سطح (DSM) منطقه، پس از شناسایی خودکار هر درخت، تفاضل ارتفاع بین پیکسل زمین و پیکسل نوک تاج را به‌عنوان ارتفاع درخت درنظر بگیرد. به‌این‌ترتیب، ارتفاع 100 درخت بنه روی DSM با توان‌های تفکیک مکانی‌ 3/47، 10، 20، 40، 60، 80 و 100 سانتی‌‌متر برآورد شد. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین ضریب تبیین (0/89) و کمترین جذر میانگین مربعات خطای نسبی (11/8 درصد) مربوط به ارتفاع‌های برآوردشده در توان تفکیک مکانی 3/47 سانتی‌‌متر بود. همچنین، بین میانگین‌های ارتفاع برآوردی و واقعی در سه توان تفکیک مکانی 3/47، 10 و 20 سانتی‌‌متر، اختلاف معنی‌‌داری مشاهده نشد. برآورد ارتفاع درختان بنه در توان تفکیک مکانی 3/47 سانتی‌‌متر اندکی بیشتر از مقدار واقعی (امتیاز اریبی 1/15)، در توان تفکیک مکانی 10 سانتی‌‌متر نزدیک به مقدار واقعی (امتیاز اریبی 1/01) و در موارد دیگر، کمتر از مقدار واقعی بود. به‌‌طور کلی، برآورد ارتفاع درختان بنه با استفاده از تصاویر هوایی پهپاد فانتوم 4 امکان‌پذیر است. دراین‌بین، تصاویر هوایی با توان تفکیک مکانی 10 سانتی‌‌متر، توانایی بیشتری در برآورد ارتفاع درختان بنه داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of spatial resolution of UAV aerial images on height estimation of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) trees

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyed Yousef Erfanifard 1
  • Afrouz Chenari 2
  • Maryam Dehghani 3
  • Farshad Amiraslani 1
1 Associate Prof., Deptartment of Remote Sensing and GIS, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 M.Sc., Deptartment of Natural Resources and Environment, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
3 Associate Prof., Deptartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Estimation of allometric tree attributes such as heights that are not directly observed on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery is challenging. Therefore, this study aimed to introduce a method to estimate the height of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) single trees in the Zagros region. Therefore, a 45-ha area in Baneh Research Forest of Fars province was captured by a Phantom IV UAV. An algorithm was then suggested to consider the difference between pixels of ground and crown top as tree height on the digital surface model (DSM) following automatic single tree detection. The heights of 100 trees were estimated on DSMs with spatial resolutions of 3.47, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 cm. The results showed that the highest coefficient of determination of 0.89 and the lowest relative root mean square error of 11.8% were returned for heights estimated on DSM with 3.47 cm spatial resolution. Moreover, no significant difference was observed among measured and estimated height values on spatial resolutions of 3.47, 10, and 20 cm, respectively. The tree heights were overestimated on DSM with a spatial resolution of 3.47 cm (bias score 1.15), while they were close to the measured values on 10 cm spatial resolution (bias score 1.01) and were underestimated in other spatial resolutions. In general, the results showed the feasibility to estimate heights of wild pistachio trees on Phantom IV imagery, in particular on UAV imagery with a 10 cm spatial resolution.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Baneh Research Forest
  • digital surface model
  • Fars province
  • unmanned aerial vehicles

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