عنوان مقاله [English]
Mangrove forests are one of the most beneficial ecosystems that have lost more than 50% of their primary extents. Because of uncontrolled degradation, many countries go beyond standard measures of mangrove forests protection and produce standard seedlings to afforest for higher success rates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of species, irrigation, and light regimes as well as their interaction on vegetative growth of grey mangrove (Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh.) and red mangrove (Rhizophora mucronata (Lam.)) seedlings in the nursery setting. Seeds of mangrove trees were collected and planted in plastic pots during July and August 2008. Then collar diameter, height, and stem height to stem diameter (h/d) were measured as influenced by species, irrigation regime (every day, every other day, and three days in between) and light condition (shade and light) using a three-way analysis of variance. Results showed that the diameter growth in the red mangrove is more than 0.38 mm than that of the grey mangrove (p < 0.05). Interactive effects of species × light condition showed that diameter growth of grey mangrove and red mangrove seedlings are significantly different in the shade condition. Diameter growth of grey mangrove seedlings was higher in light condition than that of in shade (p < 0.05). In shade, the stem height to stem diameter of seedlings was significantly higher than that of those measured it in light. Furthermore, the stem height to stem diameter as influenced by species × light condition was significantly different between two species and was also higher in shade condition compared with grey mangrove seedling (p < 0.01). The results suggested that light provides more favorable conditions for the grey mangrove seedlings growth, whereas it is not beneficial for the red mangrove seedlings.
- Ball, M.C., 2002. Interactive effect of salinity and irradiance on growth: implications for mangrove forest structure along gradients. Trees, 16(2-3): 126-139.
- Clarke, P.J. and Allaway, W.G., 1993. The regeneration niche of the grey mangrove (Avicennia marina): effects of salinity, light and sediment factors on establishment, growth and survival in the field. Oecologia, 93(4): 548-556.
- Coomes, D.A. and Grubb, P.J., 2000. Impacts of root competition in forests and woodlands: a theoretical framework and review of experiments. Ecological Monographs, 70(2): 171-207.
- Duarte, C.M., Geertz-Hansen, O., Thampanya, U., Terrados, J., Fortes, M.D., Kamp-Nielsen, L., Borum, J. and Boromthanarath, S., 1998. Relationship between sediment conditions and mangrove Rhizophora apiculata seedling growth and nutrient status. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 175: 277-283.
- Elhadi, M.A., Ibrahim, K.A and Abdel Majid, T.D., 2013. Effect of different watering regimes on growth performance of five tropical trees in the nursery. Jonares, 1: 14-18.
- Guerra-Santos, J.J, Méndez-Sánchez, J.A., Alderete-Chávez, Á., de la Cruz-Landero, N. and del Carmen Guevara-Carrió, E., 2015. Light intensity on two mangrove species as an indicator of regeneration in a disturbed forest in Campeche, Mexico. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 199: 15-22.
- Hassani, M., 2009. Investigation on the mangrove forest plantation and extension in coastal area of Persian Gulf. Final Report of Research Project, Published by Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, 93p (In Persian).
- Hsiao, T.C., 1973. Plant responses to water stress. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 24(1): 519-570.
- Imai, N., Takyu, M. and Nakamura, Y., 2009. Growth, crown architecture and leaf dynamics of sapling of five mangrove tree species in Ranong, Thailand. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 377: 139-148.
- Imai, N., Takyu, M., Nakamura, Y. and Nakamura T., 2006. Gap formation and regeneration of tropical mangrove forests in Ranong, Thailand. Plant Ecology, 186(1): 37-46.- Kramer, P.J., 1969. Plant, Soil, Water Relationship. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 390p.
- López-Hoffman, L., DeNoyer, J.L., Monroe, I.E., Shaftel, R., Anten, N.P.R., Martínez-Ramos, M. and Ackerly, D.D., 2006. Mangrove seedling net photosynthesis, growth and survivorship are interactively affected by salinity and light. Biotropica, 38(5): 606-616.
- Mansour, H.A., El Maadwy, A.I. and Mustafa, H.G., 2016. Effect of irrigation interval and cytokinin treatments on vegetative growth of Conocarpus erectus L. plants. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research, 5(3): 324-332.
- Moslehi, M., 2018. Ecological value of endangered mangrove ecosystems. Human and Environment, 16(3): 149-167 (In Persian).
- Pendleton, L., Donato, D.C., Murray, B.C., Crooks, S., Jenkins, W.A., Sifleet, S., Craft, C., Fourqueran, J.W., Kauffman, J.B., Marbà, N., Megonigal, P., Pidgeon, E., Herr, D., Gordon, D. and Baldera, A., 2012. Estimating global “blue carbon” emissions from conversion and degradation of vegetated coastal ecosystems. PloS One, 7(9): e43542.
- Pinzón, Z.S., Ewel, K.C. and Putz, F.E., 2003. Gap formation and forest regeneration in a Micronesian mangrove forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 19(2): 143-153.
- Poorter, L., 2005. Resource capture and use by tropical forest tree seedlings and their consequences for competition: 35-64. In: Burslem, D.F.R.P., Pinard, M.A. and Hartley, S.E. (Eds.). Biotic Interactions in the Tropics: Their Role in the Maintenance of Species Diversity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 571p.
- Por, F.D. and Dor, I., 1984. Hydrobiology of the Mangal. The Hague: Dr. W Junk Publishers, Hague, 260p.
- Saied, A.S., el Mula Ahmed, M.F. and Mohamed Mahdi, E.F., 2005. Effects of different irrigation intervals on growth of lime (Citrus aurantifolia L.) seedlings. University of Khartoum Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 13(3): 474-478.
- Slatyer, R.O., 1967. Plant-Water Relationships. Academic Press, New York, 366p.
- Smith, T.J., 1987. Effects of seed predators and light level on the distribution of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. in tropical, tidal forests. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 25(1): 43-51.
- Standish, H., 2016. Mangrove morphological changes along environmental gradients: Implications for competitive ability in a changing climate. M.Sc. Thesis, Charles E. Schmidt College of Science, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, 94p.
- Wolf, B.M., 2012. Ecosystem of the mangroves. NRES 323, International Resource Management, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Stevens Point, Wisconsin, 25p.