اثر روش‌های مختلف کاشت بذر در استقرار و رشد نهال‌های بلوط ایرانی (Quercus brantii Lindl)

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ایلام

2 دانشیار، بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع‌ طبیعی استان ایلام، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ایلام، ایران

3 استادیار، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

4 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع ‌طبیعی استان ایلام، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ایلام، ایران

چکیده

در پژوهش پیش‌‌رو، زنده‌مانی، ارتفاع و شادابی نهال‌های بلوط ایرانی (Quercusbrantii Lindl.) حاصل از پنج روش مختلف کاشت بذر در قالب طرح آماری کاملاً تصادفی در جنگل­‌های ایلام بررسی شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل کاشت بذرها در چاله‌هایی به‌عمق 50 و قطر 40 سانتی‌متر و در پناه توری‌های 50 درصد مقاوم به UV (تیمار سایه)، چاله‌هایی به‌عمق 50 و قطر 40 سانتی‌متر همراه با ریختن هوموس و لاش‌برگ بر روی بذرهای کاشته‌شده (تیمار لاش‌برگ)، چاله‌هایی به‌عمق 55 و قطر 40 سانتی‌متر و استفاده از سوپرجاذب (تیمار سوپرجاذب)، چاله‌هایی به‌عمق 100 و قطر 60 سانتی‌متر (تیمار چاله عمیق) و بذرکاری در عمق پنج سانتی‌متری زمین (تیمار شاهد) بود. همچنین، شدت نور نسبی در همه واحدها با استفاده از دوربین مجهز به عدسی چشم‌ماهی اندازه‌گیری شد و رابطه رگرسیونی آن نسبت به درصد زنده‌مانی نهال‌ها به‌دست آمد. مقایسه میانگین تیمارها نسبت به تیمار شاهد در سطح اطمینان 99 درصد نشان داد که تیمارهای چاله عمیق، سوپرجاذب، سایه و لاش‌برگ به‌ترتیب 134/5، 138/2، 178/6 و 243/3 درصد افزایش زنده‌مانی نهال داشتند. در تیمارهای سایه و چاله عمیق به‌ترتیب 19 /5و 31 درصد افزایش ارتفاع و در تیمارهای لاش‌برگ و چاله عمیق به‌ترتیب 18 و 31 درصد افزایش شادابی نهال مشاهده شد. برازش مدل رگرسیون زنده‌مانی و درصد نور نسبی (به‌جز تیمار چاله عمیق) نیز بیانگر معنی‌دار بودن مدل خطی (0/73=R2) در سطح اطمینان 99 درصد بود. براساس نتایج پژوهش پیش­رو، تیمار لاش‌برگ به‌عنوان مناسب‌ترین روش کاشت بذر بلوط توصیه می‌‌شود. در خصوص تیمار سایه و نیز تیمار چاله عمیق که پیش از ریزش خاک و خفگی نهال‌ها بهترین عملکرد زنده‌مانی را داشت، انجام پژوهش‌‌های تکمیلی ضرورت دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of different seeding techniques on establishment and growth of Brant`s oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) seedlings

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Najafifar 1
  • J. Hoseinzadeh 2
  • P. Parhizkar 3
  • Sh. Asgari 4
1 Assistant Prof., Research Division of Natural Resources, Ilam Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center (AREEO), Ilam, Iran
2 Associate Prof., Research Division of Natural Resources, Ilam Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, Ilam, Iran
3 Assistant Prof., Forest Research Division, Research Institute of Forest and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
4 Assistant Prof., Research Division of Natural Resources, Ilam Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, Ilam, Iran
چکیده [English]

The viability, height, and vitality of Brant`s oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) seedlings from five different seeding techniques were studied in a completely randomized design in Ilam forests. The treatments included 1) seeding in holes with 50 cm depth and 40 cm diameter in the shelter of 50% UV resistant laces (shade treatment), 2) seeding in holes with 50 cm depth and 40 cm diameter and pouring down hummus and litters on sown seeds (litter treatment), 3) seeding in holes with 50 cm depth and 40 cm diameter and use of super-absorbent (super absorbent treatment), 4) seeding in holes with depth of 100 cm and a diameter of 60 cm (deep hole treatment), and finally 5) seeding at a depth of 5 cm from the soil surface (control treatment). Also, the relative light intensity in all holes was measured using a fisheye camera, and a regression model was obtained from the seeding survival rate. The results of the comparison of the mean (p < 0.01) indicated that the deep hole, super absorbent, shelter, and litter treatments showed a 134.5, 138.2, 178.6, and 243.3% increase in seedling viability, respectively. Furthermore, shelter and deep holes treatments revealed a 19.5% and 31% increase in seedling height, while litter and deep holes treatments had 18% and 31% increase of seeding vitality, respectively. The fitted regression model indicated a significant correlation (R2 = 0.73, p < 0.01) between viability and relative light percentage (except for the deep hole treatment). Results revealed that litter treatment can be recommended as the most suitable method for the oak seedling. However, further research is required in case of the shade and deep holes treatment, which showed the best survival performance prior to soil erosion and seedings mortality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Plantings methods
  • seeding
  • Zagros forests

- Farque, L., Sinoquet, H. and Colin, F., 2001. Canopy structure and light interception in Quercus petraea seedlings in relation to light regime and plant density. Tree Physiology, 21(17): 1257-1267.

- Fattahi, M. and Tavakoli, A., 1999. Suitable Plant Methods of Oak Seed in Zagross Forests. Published by Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, 276p (In Persian).

- Gardiner, E.S. and Hodges, J.D., 1998. Growth and biomass distribution of cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) seedling as influenced by light avalilability. Forest Ecology and Management, 108(1-2): 127-134.

- Guo, Y., Shelton, M.G. and Zhang, H., 2002. Effects of light regimes on 1-year-old sweetgum and water oak seedlings. Proceedings of the Eleventh Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference. Knoxville, Tennessee, Mar. 20-22, 2001: 373-376.

- Hesami, S.M., Davazdahemami, S. and Yaghmaei, L., 2014. Investigation on effect of sowing depth and seed cover on seedling establishment of Quercus brantii Lindl. at Fars province. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 21(3): 573-580 (In Persian).

- Hosainzadeh, J., Khoshnevis, M., Azami, A., Poursiabidi, M., Mohamadpour, M., Hosaini, A. and Rashidi, S., 2015. Investigation on the possibility of improving the establishment and growth of three species of Quercus branti, Pistasia atlantica and Cersis Siliquasterum, using the method of reservoir reserve savings in Ilam province. Final Report of Research Project, Published by Institute of Forestry and Rangeland Research, Tehran 43p (In Persian).

- Huang, X., Yin, C., Duan, B. and Li, C., 2008. Interactions between drought and shade on growth and physiological traits in two Populus cathayana populations. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 38(7): 1877-1887.

- Ilam Weather Station, 2016. Ilam Weather Database. Ilam Meteorological Office Press, Ilam, 123p (In Persian).

- Jahanpour, F.A, Fatahi, M., Khademi, K., Sohrabi, S.R., Karamian, R. and Beiranvand, R., 2007. Investigation on the effect of light on the survival of pistachio seedlings in Lorestan province. Final Report of Research Project, Published by Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, 66p (In Persian).

- Jazirehi, M.H. and Ebrahimi Rostaghi, M., 2003. Silviculture in Zagros. University of Tehran University, Tehran, 560p (In Persian).

- Maroufi, H., 1999. Study on sowing depth of different oak species. Final Report of Research Project, Published by Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Kurdistan Province, Sanandaj, 75p (In Persian).

- Mirbadin, A.R. and Sheibani, H.A., 1994. Causes of Pinus eldarica physiology weakness in Chitgar Park. Final Report of Research Project, Published by Institute of Forestry and Rangeland Research of Iran, Tehran, 61p (In Persian).

- Najafifar, A., Hoseinzadeh, J., Pourhashemi, M. and Hoseini, A., 2015. The effect of topography and habitat ecological capability in forest dieback in Ilam province. Final Report of Research Project, Published by Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, 74p (In Persian).

- Najafifar, A., Moayeri, M.H., Shatai-Joybari, Sh. and Salman-Mahini, A., 2017. The role of hillshade regime on canopy density and evaluation of ecological capability in the Zagros forests (Case study: Kabirkooh forest of Badreh city, Ilam province). Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 25(1): 23-34 (In Persian).

- Najafifar, A., Saghebtalebi, Kh. and Saeb, K., 2012. The role of light intensity on survival of Quercus branti saplings in relation to slope aspect and distance from seed trees in Ilam province forests. Journal of Forest and Wood Products, 64(4): 641-674 (In Persian).

- Sack, L. and Grubb, P.J., 2002. The combined impacts of deep shade and drought on the growth and biomass allocation of shade-tolerant woody seedlings. Oecologia, 131(2): 175-185.

- Sadeghzadeh Hallaj, M.H., Azadfar, D. and Mirzaei Nodoushan, H., 2018. Effect of artificial shading and soil humidity on allocation of some nutrients in the organs of wild pistachio saplings. Iranian Journal of Forest, 10(1): 43-54 (In Persian).

- Valkonen, S., 2008. Survival and growth of planted and seeded oak (Quercus robur L.) seedlings with and without shelters on field afforestation sites in Finland. Forest Ecology and Management, 255(3-4): 1085-1094.

- Teymourzadeh, A., Akbariniya, M., Hosseini, S.M., Tabari, M., 2004. The effect of shades on survival and growth seedlings of Persian oak (Quercus macranthera). Pajouhesh Va Sazandegi, 61: 12-17 (In Persian).