تأثیر حضور دام بر تنوع پوشش گیاهی و ویژگی‌های خاک در جنگل‌های نکاظالمرد استان مازندران

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری جنگل‌شناسی و اکولوژی جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم و مهندسی جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

3 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان مازندران، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ساری، ایران

چکیده

DOR: 98.1000/1735-0883.1397.26.382.73.3.1578.1606
 
دامداری سنتی در جنگل‌­های هیرکانی و تأثیر آن بر این بوم‌سازگان منحصر به‌فرد از جمله چالش‌­های مدیریتی در حوزه منابع طبیعی کشور محسوب می­شود. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی اثرات حضور دام بر شاخص‌­های تنوع زیستی، ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک در بخش پنج جنگل‌های نکاظالمرد استان مازندران انجام شد. پس از جنگل‌گردشی، چهار دام‌سرا انتخاب شد. در مجموع 72 قطعه‌نمونه 400 متر مربعی (20×20 متر) در محدوده دام‌سراها و جنگل‌های شاهد اطراف آن‌ها برای اندازه‌گیری نوع و درصد پوشش گونه‌های گیاهی در مرکز و چهار جهت جغرافیایی دام‌سرا درنظر گرفته و نمونه‌های خاک از عمق صفر تا 10 و 10 تا 20 سانتی‌متر برداشت شد. برای مقایسه پوشش گیاهی و خاک محدوده دام‌سرا، توده جنگلی شاهد با شرایطی کاملاً مشابه انتخاب شد. برای بررسی تنوع زیستی، شاخص­‌های ناهمگنی و شاخص‌­های یکنواختی محاسبه شدند. شاخص‌­های غنا نیز محاسبه و مقایسه مشخصه‌های پوشش گیاهی توده و خاک با آزمون T غیرجفتی انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که در مورد تنوع، شاخص‌­های هیل و شانون و در مورد یکنواختی، شاخص‌­های اسمیت- ویلسون و سیمپسون اختلاف معنی‌داری بین دو منطقه داشتند. در بررسی مشخصه‌های خاک از نظر عامل درصد شن و درصد رطوبت بین مناطق تحت اثر مستقیم دام و مناطق شاهد اختلاف معنی‌داری وجود نداشت، اما از نظر مشخصه‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی دیگر اختلاف معنی‌داری مشاهده شد. یافته­‌های این پژوهش نشان داد که خاک در عرصه‌های جنگلی به‌واسطه حضور دام دچار تغییرات قابل توجهی شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation on livestock presence in forest on plant biodiversity and soil properties in Zalemroud, Neka, Mazandaran province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abbas Ali Nobakht 1
  • Seyyed Mohammad Hojjati 2
  • Mohammad Reza Pourmajidian 2
  • Ramezan Ali Khorrami 3
1 Ph.D. Student of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
2 Associate Prof., Department of Forestry and Forest Ecology, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
3 Assistant Prof., Research Division of Natural Resources, Mazandaran Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sari, Iran
چکیده [English]

Traditional animal husbandry within the Hyrcanian forest area and its impact on this individual ecosystem is one of the main challenges for Iranian natural resources management. The current study was carried out to investigate the presence of livestock on biodiversity, physical and chemical characteristics of soil in district 5 of Neka Zalemroud forest in Mazandaran province. In this research, after a pre study of the area, the four cattle (livestock) campuses was selected, then in total 72 plot of 400 m2 (20 × 20 m) in the campuses and in control forest area, were used to measure the type and percentage of ground vegetation in the center and four geographical directions of the campuses. Soil samples were taken from 0-10 and 10- 20 cm depth. In order to compare vegetation and soil properties, neighboring forest stands were selected with similar conditions as control areas. In each plot biodiversity, heterogeneity, richness and uniformity indices were calculated. Non-paired T-test (Mean Comparison test for two groups) was used to compare properties in the campus and control forest area. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the two areas in the variability index (Hill and Shannon) and in the uniformity index (Smith-Wilson and Simpson indices). In the current study of soil characteristics, there was no significant difference for the sand percentage and moisture content between the direct affected areas and the control areas, but there was a significant difference between the other physical and chemical characteristics in the two areas. Our findings indicated a significant impact of livestock presence on forest soil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biodiversity
  • carbon stock
  • Hyrcanian forests
  • livestock campus
  • vegetation

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