تحلیل ساختار مکانی اجتماعات گونه‌ای در توده‌های آمیخته کیکم (Acer monspessulanum) درخت‌زارهای زاگرس (مطالعه موردی: فیروزآباد، استان فارس)

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد، بخش منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

2 دانشیار، بخش منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

چکیده

برهم‌کنش بین ‌گونه‌ای درختان یکی از فرآیندهای مهم در ایجاد ساختار مکانی اجتماعات گیاهی در بوم‌سازگان­‌های با تنوع زیستی اندک است. پژوهش پیش‌رو با هدف بررسی برهم‌کنش بین ‌گونه‌ای کیکم (Acer monspessulanum) با دو گونه همراه آن (بادام کوهی و گون) در رویشگاه کیکم در نزدیکی شهر فیروزآباد استان فارس انجام شد. قطعه‌­نمونه­‌ای با ابعاد 200 × 200 متر در بخشی از این رویشگاه انتخاب شد. موقعیت مکانی 629 پایه از سه گونه به‌همراه ارتفاع و مساحت تاج هر کدام از گیاهان اندازه­‌گیری شد. علاوه‌بر تابع g دومتغیره، دو تابع M و P نیز برای کشف جزئیات بیشتر از برهم‌کنش بین گونه‌ای این گونه‌­ها استفاده شدند. نتایج نشان داد که کیکم دارای بیشترین تراکم، میانگین ارتفاع و میانگین مساحت تاج نسبت به دو گونه دیگر بود. نتایج بیانگر وجود برهم‌کنش منفی بین سه گونه بود که با افزایش فاصله، این برهم‌کنش منفی کاهش می‌یافت. برهم‌کنش منفی بین کیکم با بادام کوهی و کیکم با گون به‌ترتیب تا مقیاس فاصله‌­ای سه و 10 متر مشاهده شد. همچنین، کیکم و دو گونه دیگر تا فاصله هفت متر کنش متقابل دفع از خود نشان دادند. به‌طور کلی، نتیجه­‌گیری شد که کیکم با دو گونه بادام کوهی و گون در منطقه مورد مطالعه برهم‌کنش منفی داشتند که ممکن است این برهم‌کنش به‌دلیل ناهمگنی محیطی و محدودیت در منابع باشد. علاوه‌براین، دو تابع M و P جزئیات بیشتری از نوع و مقیاس مکانی برهم‌کنش بین‌گونه‌ای منفی کیکم با دو گونه دیگر را نشان دادند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatial structural analysis of species associations in mixed Montpellier maple (Acer monspessulanum L.) stands of Zagros woodlands (Case study: Firooz Abad, Fars province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Azita Alipour 1
  • Seyyed Yousef Erfanifard 2
  • Hossein Sadeghi 2
  • Seyyed Rashid Fallah Shamsi 2
1 M.Sc., Department of Natural Resources and Environment, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
2 Associate Prof., Department of Natural Resources and Environment, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Interspecific interaction of tree species is an important process in establishing spatial structure of species associations in ecosystems with low species diversity. This study was aimed to investigate the interspecific interactions of Montpellier maple (Acer monspessulanum L.) and two accompanying species (i.e., Amygdalus scoparia and Astragalus gossypinus) in a site close to Firooz Abad, Fars province. A 200 m × 200 m sample plot was selected in a part of the site. The spatial locations of 629 individuals were measured together with their tree species, height and crown area. In addition to bivariate g(r), M(r) and P(r) were applied to explore more details about interspecific species interactions. The results showed that A. monspessulanum had the highest density, mean height and crown area compared to other species. The results indicated negative interspecific interactions of tree species, which was decreased with increasing distance. Negative interactions were observed between A. monspessulanum with A. scoparia and A. monspessulanum with A. gossypinus up to spatial scale of 3 m and 10 m, respectively. Moreover, A. monspessulanum and two other species showed repulsion up to 7 m distance. In general, it was concluded that A. monspessulanum showed negative interspecific interactions with A. scoparia and A. gossypinus in the study area. This might be caused by environmental heterogeneity and resource limitation. Furthermore, M(r) and P(r) explored more details about type and spatial scale of negative interspecific interactions of A. monspessulanum with two other species.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Amygdalus scoparia
  • Astragalus gossypinus
  • interspecific interaction
  • spatial ecology
- Biabani, K., Pilehvar, B. and Safari, A., 2016. Comparison of spatial patterns and interspecific association of Gall oak (Quercus infectoria Oliv.) and Lebanon oak (Q. libani Oliv.) in two less degraded and degraded oak stands in northern Zagros (Case study: Khedr Abad, Sardasht). Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 24(1): 77-88 (In Persian).

- Cheng, X., Han, H., Kang, F., Song, Y. and Liu, K., 2014. Point pattern analysis of different life stages of Quercus liaotungensis in Lingkong Mountain, Shanxi Province, China. Journal of Plant Interactions, 9(1): 233-240.

- Dale, M.R.T., 2000. Spatial Pattern Analysis in Plant Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 338p.

- Dinarvand, M., Ejtehadi, H., Jangjo, M. and Andarzian, B., 2016. Biodiversity and recognition vegetation functional groups in wood pasture of Shimbar protected area in Khuzestan province. Iranian Journal of Applied Ecology, 15: 1-12 (In Persian).

- Fortin, M.J. and Dale, M.R.T., 2005. Spatial Analysis: a Guide for Ecologists. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 365p.

- Getzin, S., Wiegand, T., Wiegand, K. and He, F., 2008. Heterogeneity influences spatial patterns and demographics in forest stands. Journal of Ecology, 96: 807-820.

- Hoseini, A., 2012. Spatial distribution of Montpellier maple and honeysuckle related to topography and stand form in Karezan forests, Ilam. Natural Ecosystems of Iran, 3(2): 27-37 (In Persian).

- Illian, J., Penttinen, A., Stoyan, H. and Stoyan, D., 2008. Statistical Analysis and Modeling of Spatial Point Patterns. John Wiley & Sons, London, 560p.

- Jia, G., Yu, X., Fan, D. and Jia, J., 2016. Mechanism underlying the spatial pattern formation of dominant tree species in a natural secondary forest. PLoS ONE, 11(3): 1-13.

- Le, D.T.N., Thinh, N.V,, Dung, N.T. and Mitlöhner, R., 2016. Effect of disturbance regimes on spatial patterns of tree species in three sites in a tropical evergreen forest in Vietnam. International Journal of Forestry Research, 490: 37-49.

- Nguyen, H.H., Uria‐Diez, J. and Wiegand, K., 2016. Spatial distribution and association patterns in a tropical evergreen broad‐leaved forest of north‐central Vietnam. Journal of Vegetation Science, 27: 318-327.

- Perry, G.L.W., Enright, N.J., Miller B.P. and Lamont, B.B., 2009. Nearest-neighbor interactions in species-rich shrublands: The roles of abundance, spatial patterns and resources. Oikos, 118(2): 161-174.

- Petritan, I.C., Commarmot, B., Hobi, M.L., Petritan, A.M., Bigler, C., Abrudan, I.V. and Rigling, A., 2015. Structural patterns of beech and silver fir suggest stability and resilience of the virgin forest Sinca in the Southern Carpathians, Romania. Forest Ecology and Management, 356: 184-195.

- Pilehvar, B., Mirazadi, Z., Alijani, V. and Jafari Sarabi, H., 2015. Investigation of hawthorn and maple’s stands structures of Zagros forest using nearest neighbors indices. Journal of Zagros Forests Researches, 1(2): 1-14 (In Persian).

- Pourbabaei, H., Babaeian, M., Bonyad, A.E. and Adel, M.N., 2014. Autecology of Montpellier maple (Acer monspessulanum subsp. cinerascens) in forests of Fars Province. Journal of Plant Researches, 27(3): 376-385 (In Persian).

- Safari, A., Shabanian, N., Erfanifard, Y., Heidari, R.H. and Purreza, M., 2010. Investigation of spatial pattern of wild Pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) (Case study: Bayangan forests, Kermanshah). Iranian Journal of Forest, 2(2): 177-185 (In Persian).

- Schleicher, J., Wiegand, K. and Ward, D., 2011. Changes of woody plant interaction and spatial distribution between rocky and sandy soil areas in a semi-arid Savanna, South Africa. Journal of Arid Environments, 75: 270-278.

- Sher, A.A., Wiegand, K., and Ward, D., 2010. Do Acacia and Tamarix trees compete for water in the Negev desert?. Journal of Arid Environments, 74: 338-343.

- Sidor, C.G, Popa, I. and Vlad, R., 2013. Spatial structure of spruce-stone pine mixed forest from Calimani Mountains (Eastern Carpathians). Advances in Environmental Sciences, 5(3): 328-333.

- Sohrabi, H., 2014. Spatial pattern of woody species in Chartagh forest reserve, Ardal. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 22(1): 27-38 (In Persian).

- Svátek, M. and Matula, R., 2015. Fine-scale spatial patterns in oak sprouting and mortality in a newly restored coppice. Forest Ecology and Management, 348: 117-123.

- Tashakori zadeh, M. and Matinkhah, S.H., 2009. Investigation on the effects of crown canopy of trees on pasture yield and quality of understory vegetation in central Zagros. Iranian Journal of Forest, 1(4): 321-331 (In Persian).   

- Wiegand, T. and Moloney, K.A, 2013. Handbook of Spatial Point-Pattern Analysis in Ecology. CRC Press, London, 538p.