بررسی تنوع گونه‌های درختی و درختچه‌ای بیشه‌زارهای گویجه‌بل در شهرستان اهر

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه جنگل‌داری، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اهر، دانشگاه تبریز، اهر، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

آگاهی از وضعیت تنوع زیستی می‌­تواند راهنمایی برای مدیریت بهتر اکوسیستم باشد.­ تنوع گونه‌­ای زیاد با حفاظت بهتر می‌­تواند پایداری اکولوژیکی اکوسیستم را تضمین کند. هدف پژوهش پیش‌رو، شناسایی و بررسی تنوع گونه‌­های درختی و درختچه­‌ای منطقه گویجه‌­بِل شهرستان اهر و ارزیابی اثر عامل‌های فیزیوگرافی بر آن بود. نمونه­‌برداری به‌صورت منظم- تصادفی با شبکه‌ای به ابعاد 200 ×150 متر و با 48 قطعه‌نمونه دایره‌­ای شکل 314 متر مربعی انجام شد. در هر قطعه‌نمونه، فهرست کلیه گونه­‌های درختی و درختچه‌­ای همراه با ارزش­‌های فراوانی- غلبه بر اساس مقیاس براون بلانکه ثبت شد. نتایج نشان داد که درمجموع، 13 گونه چوبی در منطقه وجود داشت. ازملک (Smilax excelsa) بیشترین درصد حضور (39 درصد) و تنگرس (Rhamnus sp.) کمترین درصد حضور (0/04 درصد) را در قطعات نمونه داشتند. تراکم در قطعه‌نمونه از 10 تا 110 پایه از گونه­‌های مختلف متغیر بود. دو گونه بومی جنگل‌های ارسباران (کرب و هفت‌­کول) در این منطقه مشاهده شد. هفت‌کول به‌طور غالب در جهت­‌های غربی و کرب در جهت­‌های شرقی حضور داشت. اثر اصلی شیب بر شاخص‌­های تاکسا، سیمپسون، شانون- وینر و مارگالف معنی­‌دار نبود، در حالی‌که اثرات اصلی جهت بر شاخص تاکسا در سطح اطمینان 99 درصد و بر دیگر شاخص‌­ها در سطح اطمینان 95 درصد معنی­‌دار بود. مقدار کلیه شاخص‌های تنوع در جهت غربی بیشتر بود. نتایج مربوط به خوشه‌­بندی ترکیب پوشش گیاهی، نتایج مربوط به مقایسه شاخص‌­های تنوع سایت­‌ها را تأیید کرد. شاخص‌­های تاکسا و مارگالف دارای بیشترین ضریب تغییرات بودند، بنابراین در سایر پژوهش‌ها و نیز ارزیابی­ اثر مدیریت و پایش تغییرات پوشش گیاهی، استفاده از شاخص‌­های مذکور توصیه می‌شود. بر اساس نتایج این پژوهش، زیاد بودن شیب و تنوع زیستی منطقه مورد مطالعه، زمینه حفاظت و قرق منطقه را فراهم می‌کند. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Diversity of tree and shrub species in woodlands of Guijeh-bel region of Ahar

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sajjad Ghanbari 1
  • Esmaeil Sheidai Karkaj 2
1 Assistant Prof, Department of Forestry, Ahar Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tabriz, Ahar, Iran
2 Assistant Prof., Department of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

Understanding of biodiversity status can be applied as a guide to better ecosystem management. The ecosystem ecological sustainability is ensured by high species diversity and better conservation. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify the species diversity of trees and shrubs in the Guijeh-bel region of Ahar and to determine species diversity using related indicators, as well as the relationship between biodiversity and physiographic factors. Sampling was done in 48 circular sample plots, each 314m2, by a random-systematic method within a 150×200m network. In each sample plot, a list of all of tree and shrub species with abundant-overcome values was recorded based on the Brown Blanche scale. The results showed that there were 13 woody species. Smilax excelsa L. and Rhamnus sp. had the highest (39%) and the lowest (0.04%) presence in the sample plots, respectively. The number of stems varied from 10 to 110 stems of different species in the sample plots. Two index species of Arasbaran region, Acer campestre L. and Viburnum lantana L., were observed in this area. Viburnum lantana and Acer campestre were often found on the western and the eastern aspects, respectively. The main effects of slope on the Taxa, Simpson, Shannon-Weiner and Margaleff indicators were not significant. The main effect of aspect was significant on the taxa index at 1% level and on other indicators at 5% level. The average of all indicators of diversity in the western aspect was higher than those of other aspects. The results of clustering of vegetation composition confirmed the results of the comparison of the site diversity indices. According to the results of the coefficient of variation, the taxa and Margalaf indices had the highest coefficient of variation. Therefore, in other studies, as well as assessment of the effects of management and monitoring of vegetation changes, it is recommended to use the indicators. Based on the results of this study, the high values of slope steepness and biodiversity, provides the protection of the area.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biodiversity
  • conservation
  • index species
  • physiography
  • Viburnum lantana
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