تأثیر مدیریت مبتنی بر حفاظت بر ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک جنگل‌های ارسباران

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه جنگل‌داری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه جنگل‌داری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه اقتصاد کشاوری، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

بررسی ویژگی­‌های خاک یکی از راه­‌های ارزیابی مدیریت اعمال­‌شده بر رویشگاه­‌های جنگلی است. در پژوهش پیش‌رو به بررسی اثر مدیریت مبتنی بر حفاظت بر ویژگی­‌های خاک رویشگاه‌­های جنگلی منطقه ارسباران پرداخته شد. ابتدا منطقه حفاظت­‌شده و غیرحفاظتی (دیزمار) ارسباران به دو طبقه ارتفاعی 1000 تا 1500 متر و 1500 تا 2000 متر از سطح دریا تقسیم ­شد و در هر منطقه 22 نمونه خاک (در هر طبقه ارتفاعی 11 نمونه خاک) و درمجموع 44 نمونه خاک از عمق صفر تا 30 سانتی‌­متری دامنه‌­های شمالی این جنگل­‌ها برداشت ­شد. آزمون­ تجزیه واریانس دوطرفه برای بررسی اثرات تیمار مدیریت حفاظتی 45ساله و عامل ارتفاع از سطح دریا بر ویژگی‌های خاک انجام ­شد. نتایج نشان­ داد که مدیریت حفاظتی بر اسیدیته (6/5)، هدایت الکتریکی ( ds/m1/45)، رطوبت گل اشباع (77/5 درصد)، کربن آلی (8/31 درصد)، رس (31/77 درصد)، شن (40 درصد)، نیتروژن کل (0/84 درصد)، پتاسیم قابل جذب (2475/86 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم) و محتوای رطوبتی خاک (17/42 درصد) اثر معنی­‌دار داشت و میانگین تمامی این شاخص­‌ها به­‌جز شن در منطقه حفاظت­‌شده بیشتر از منطقه غیرحفاظتی بود. همچنین، نتایج نشان­ داد که عامل ارتفاع از سطح دریا بر وزن مخصوص ظاهری و محتوای رطوبتی خاک تأثیر معنی­‌داری داشت، به­‌طوری‌که میانگین وزن مخصوص ظاهری در طبقه ارتفاعی پایین (1/09 گرم بر سانتی­ متر مکعب) و میانگین محتوای رطوبتی خاک در طبقه ارتفاعی بالا (17/92 درصد) بیشتر بود.نتایج این پژوهش مؤید تأثیر قابل توجه رویکرد مدیریت حفاظتی بر شاخص‌­های کیفیت خاک رویشگاه‌­های جنگلی بخش حفاظت‌شده منطقه ارسباران بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of protection based management on physical and chemical properties of soil in Arasbaran forests

نویسندگان [English]

  • Samira Sasanifar 1
  • Ahmad Alijanpour 2
  • Abbas Banj Shafiei 2
  • Javad Eshaghi Rad 2
  • Morteza Molaei 3
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
2 Associate Prof., Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
3 Associate Prof., Department of Agriculture Economy, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the applied management function on forest habitats, soil properties will provide useful information. In the present study, the effect of conservation based management on soil properties of Arasbaran forest habitats has been investigated. At first, the protected (Dizmar) and non-protected area of Arasbaran is divided into two altitude classes of 1000-1500 and 1500-2000 m.a.s.l. In each region, 22 soil samples (11 soil samples per elevation class) and totally 44 soil samples were taken at 0-30 cm depths of Northern aspect of these forests in the summer of 2016. Two-way ANOVA tests were carried out to evaluate the effects of 46-year conservation management treatment on the soil properties. The results showed that conservation management has significant effect on acidity (6.5%), Electrical Conductivity (EC) (1.45 ds/m), saturation moisture (77.5%), organic carbon (8.31%), clay (31.77%), sand (40%), N (0.84%), K (2475.86 ppm) and soil water content (17.42%). The mean of all these parameters except the sand are higher in protected region than the non-protected region. Also, the results indicate that in the Arasbaran area, the treatment of altitude from the sea level had significant effect on the bulk density and soil water content of the area, so that the mean bulk density in the low altitude is higher, whereas the mean soil water content is higher in upon altitude. The results of this research confirm the significant effect of conservation management approach on the soil quality indices of forest stands in the Arasbaran area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bulk density
  • elevation
  • protected area
  • Soil quality
  • two-way ANOVA
- Alijanpour, A., Eshaghi Rad, J. and Banej Shafiei, A., 2009. Comparison of woody plants diversity in protected and non-protected areas of Arasbaran forests. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 17(1): 125-133 (In Persian).

- Amirghasemi, F., Saghebtalebi, Kh. and Dargahi, D., 2001, The study of natural regeneration structure in Arasbaran forest (Sotanchi region). Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 6: 1-62 (In Persian).

- Anonymous, 1995. Comprehensive studies of agricultural development in the Lake Urmia and Aras. Iran Engineering Consulting Engineers. Twelfth Volume of Forest and Thicket, 350p (In Persian).

- Birang, N., Javanshir, A. and Mojtahedi, Y., 1995. Azerbaijan Flora Plan Report. University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 300p (In Persian).

- Bremner, J.M. and Mulvaney, C.S., 1982. Nitrogen total: 595-624. In: Page, A.L., Miller, R.H. and Keeney, R.R., (Eds.). Methods of Soil Analysis. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy Press, 624p.

- Camping, T.J., Dahlgren, R.A., Tate, K.W. and Horwath, W.R., 2002. Changes in soil quality due to grazing and oak tree removal in California blue oak woodlands: 75-85. In: Standiford, R.B., McCreary, D. and Purcell, K.L., (Eds.). Oaks in California’s Changing Landscape, Berkeley, CA: USDA, General Technical report, PSW.

- Ebrahimi, H., Chapi, K., Ghahramany, L. and Davari, M., 2015. Effect of conversion of rangelands to planted forests on some physical and chemical soil properties. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 23(2): 379-391(In Persian).

- Eskandari Shahraki, A., Kiani, B. and Iranmanesh, Y., 2016. Effects of different land use types on soil organic carbon storage. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 24(3): 379-389 (In Persian).

- Heidari Safari Kouchi, A., Iranmanesh, Y. and Rostami Shahraji, T., 2016. Above-ground and soil carbon sequestration of white poplar (Populus alba L.) species in four different planting spaces in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 24(2): 200-213 (In Persian).

- Jafari Haghighi, M., 2003. Analytical methods of soil and the important physical and chemical sampling and analysis, with emphasis on theory and application. Nedazehi Press, 236p (In Persian).

- Jandl, R., Lindner, M., Vesterdal, L., Bauwens, B., Baritz, R., Hagedorn, F., Johnson, D.W., Minkkinen, K. and Byrne, K.A., 2007. How strongly can forest management influence soil carbon sequestration?. Geoderma, 137(3-4): 253-268.

- Javanshir, K., 2000. History of the Natural Resource Sciences of Iran. Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Tehran, 470p (In Persian).

- Kazemi, Sh., Hojjati, M., Fallah, A. and Tafazoli, M., 2015. Effects of forest management on soil physical and chemical properties of Khalil-Mahale forest. Journal of Forest Research and Development, 1(2): 167-180 (In Persian).

- Khanmirzaeifard, A. and Sameni, A., 2005. Effect of some Eucalyptus species on different forms of organic and mineral phosphorus in Garabaigan plain soils, Fasa, Iran. Proceedings of the 9th National Congress of Soil Sciences. Iran, 28-31 Aug. 2005: 28-31 (In Persian).

- Lal, R., 2004. Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change. Geoderma, 123(1): 1-22.

- Loeppert, R.H. and Suarez, D.L., 1996. Carbonate and gypsum: 437-474. In: Sparks, D.L., (Ed.). Methods of Soil Analysis. American Society of Agronomy, WI Press, Madison, Wisconsin, 474p.

- Moradi Dirmandrik, Sh., Ramezani Kakroudi, E., Alijanpour, A. and Banj Shafiei, A., 2015. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Arasbaran forest protected area in slope gradient classes. Journal of Forest Research and Development, 1(1): 1-15 (In Persian).

- Moreno, G., Obrador, J.J. and Garcia, A., 2007. Impact of evergreen oaks on soil fertility and crop production in intercropped dehesas. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 119(3): 270-280.

- Parsakhoo, A., Mostafa, M. and Pourmalekshah, A.A.M.A., 2017. The effects of slash and sawdust on reducing soil compaction on skid trails. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 25(1): 172-183 (In Persian).

- Paterson, J. and Hoyle, F., 2011. Soil organic carbon:  a Western Australian perspective. Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia, 20p.

- Puladi, N., Delavar, M.A., Golchin, A. and Mosavi Koper, A., 2013. Effect of alder and poplar plantation on soil quality and carbon sequestration (A case study: Safrabasteh Poplar Experimental Station). Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 21(2): 286-299 (In Persian).

- Rasouli-Sadaghiani, M.H., Karimi, S., Khodaverdiloo, H., Barin, M. and Banedg-Shafiei, A., 2015. Effect of land-use change on carbon and nitrogen dynamics and selected soil fertility properties in forest ecosystems of Perdanan region of Piranshahr, West Azerbaijan province. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 23(3): 478-489 (In Persian).

- Rezaei, H., Jafarzadeh, A. A., Alijanpour, A., Shahbazi, F. and Valizadeh Kamran, Kh., 2016, Genetically evolution of Arasbaran forests soils along altitudinal transects of Kaleybar Chai Sofla sub-basin. Water and Soil Science, 26: 151-166 (In Persian).

- Rhoades, J.D., 1996. Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids: 417-435. In: Sparks, D.L., (Ed.). Methods of Soil Analysis. American Society of Agronomy, WI Press, Madison, 435p.

- Salehi, A., Mohammadi, A. and Safari, A., 2011. Investigation and comparison or physical and chemical soil properties and quantitative characteristics of trees in less-damaged and damaged area of Zagros forests (Case study: Pol-e Dokhtar, Lorestan province). Iranian Journal of Forest, 3(1): 81-89 (In Persian).

- Salehi, A., Zarinkafsh, M., Zahedi amiri, Gh. and Marvi-Mohajer, M.R., 2005. A study of soil physical and chemical properties in relation to tree ecological groups in Nam-Khaneh district of Kheyrud Kenar forest. Iranian Journal of Natural Resource, 58(3): 567-578 (In Persian).

- Schoenholtz, S.H., Van Miegroet, H. and Burger, J.A., 2000. A review of chemical and physical properties as indicators of forest soil quality: challenges and opportunities. Forest Ecology and Management, 138(1): 335-356.

- Thomas, G.W., 1996. Soil pH and soil acidity: 475-490. In: Sparks, D.L., (Ed.). Methods of Soil Analysis, American Society of Agronomy, WI Press, Madison, Wisconsin, 490p.

- Zhang, H., Zhang, G.L. and Zhao, Y.G., 2007. Chemical degradation of Ferralsol (Oxisol) under intensive rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) farming in tropical China. Soil and Tillage Research, 93(1): 109-116.