بررسی تغییرات پوشش گیاهی در ارتباط با برخی متغیرهای محیطی با استفاده از گونه‌های محافظه‌کار

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای جنگل‌شناسی و اکولوژی جنگل، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه لرستان، خرم‌آباد، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه جنگل‌داری، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه لرستان، خرم‌آباد، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه جنگل‌داری، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه لرستان، خرم‌آباد، ایران

4 استادیار، دانشکده علوم جنگل، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

رج‌­بندی و طبقه‌­بندی پوشش گیاهی بر مبنای گونه­‌های محافظه­‌کار می‌­تواند از کارایی بهتری برای تحلیل روابط اکولوژیکی بین پوشش گیاهی و عامل‌های محیطی برخوردار ­باشد. پژوهش پیش‌رو با توجه به رویکرد فوق، به تغییرات اشکوب علفی تیپ­‌های جنگلی بلوط ایرانی (Quercus brantii Lindl.)، دارمازو (Q. infectoria Oliv.) و گلابی وحشی (Pyrus glabra Boiss.) در ارتباط با برخی متغیر­های محیطی می‌­پردازد. اشکوب درختی با استفاده از 24 قطعه‌­نمونه 500 مترمربعی تصادفی و اشکوب علفی هر قطعه‌نمونه با استقرار تصادفی سه ریزقطعه‌­نمونه چهار مترمربعی برداشت شد. در قطعات نمونه، تاج‌پوشش، ویژگی­‌های فیزیوگرافی و برخی متغیرهای ادافیکی اندازه­‌گیری شد. در ریزقطعات نمونه، غنای گونه‌­ا‌ی و درصد حضور گونه‌­های گیاهی به‌عنوان معیاری از وفور ثبت شد. پس از تعیین گونه‌­های محافظه­کار، پویایی اشکوب علفی با متغیرهای محیطی از طریق رج‌­بندی (CCA، PCA وDCA) و طبقه­‌بندی (TWINSPAN) بررسی شد. طبق نتایج رج‌­بندی و طبقه‌­بندی اشکوب علفی، تیپ بلوط ایرانی از نظر ترکیب گونه‌­ای، ویژگی­‌های ادافیکی و فیزیوگرافی اختصاصی‌­تر و متفاوت از اشکوب علفی تیپ­‌های بلوط دارمازو و گلابی وحشی بود. به‌عبارتی، جامعه علفی همراه با تیپ بلوط ایرانی با سطوح زیاد عناصر غذایی همبستگی مثبت نشان داد و مؤلفه‌­های اصلی تأثیرگذار بر آن متغیرهای کربن آلی، نیتروژن، پتاسیم، ماسه، ارتفاع و رطوبت اشباع خاک در عمق سطحی بود. تیپ‌­های جنگلی گلابی وحشی و دارمازو نیز در خاک‌­های آهکی و سنگین مناطق کم‌ارتفاع با سطوح کم از نظر عناصر غذایی دیده می‌­شد. به‌نظر می‌­رسد جامعه علفی و خاک تیپ بلوط ایرانی پیرو اشکوب فوقانی کلیماکس، از نظر توالی تحول یافته‌­تر باشد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation on changes in vegetation by effects of environmental factors using conservatism species

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamzeh Jafari Sarabi 1
  • Babak Pilevar 2
  • Kambiz Abrari 3
  • Seyyed Mohammad Vaez-Mousavi 4
1 Ph.D. Student of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lorestan University, Khoram Abad, Iran
2 Associate Prof., Department of Forestry, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lorestan University, Khoram Abad, Iran
3 Assistant Prof., Department of Forestry, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lorestan University, Khoram Abad, Iran
4 Assistant Prof., Faculty of Forest Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The vegetation ordination and classification based on conservatism species can be better able to analyze the ecological relationships between vegetation and environmental factors. This study aimed to investigate changes in herb layer vegetation of Quercus brantii, Q infectoria, and Pyrus glabra forest types based on conservatism species, at different environmental factors. Tree and herb layer was surveyed using 24 main plots (500m2) and 3 sub-plots (4m2) randomly distributed in each main plots, respectively. Crown canopy, physiographic features, and some edaphic factors were measured in each main plot. Species richness and species frequency were recorded in sub-plots as an abundance index. The relation between environmental factors and herb layer dynamic were investigated by ordination (CCA, PCA & DCA) and classification (TWINSPAN) methods after determining conservatism species. Based on the results of ordination and classification, herbaceous layer in Q. brantii type was significantly different in species composition and physiographic and edaphic factors from Q. infectoria and P. glabra types. Herbaceous layer in Q. brantii type showed a positive correlation with high levels of nutrients and the effective main components were OC, N, K, sand, altitude, and saturated humidity in top soil. The Q. infectoria and P. glabra types were observed in calcareous and heavy soils low elevation with nutrients deficiency. The herbaceous layer and soil in Q. brantii type seems to be more evolved due to climax tree layer.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Conservatism coefficient
  • Herbaceous layer
  • ordination
  • TWINSPAN
  • Zagros forest types

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