عنوان مقاله [English]
This research was carried out in Sirachal Research Station in order to identify the best method for Greek juniper (Juniperus excelsa M. B.) afforestation as one of the most important forest species in Iran. Three year-old juniper saplings were transported to Sirachal and were planted in a Split-Plot Randomized Block Design with water harvesting (in 5 treatments including using organs of native plants and shrubs at the bottom of pits, using 1×1 m plastic film at the surface of pits, using Aquasorb polymers mixed with the pits soil, semi-circular bonds and control) as main factor and shading (in 2 level of using tree sprouts as artificial shading and control) as secondary factor in 3 replication and 16 saplings per replication. Measured variables were survival, collar diameter, height, and crown area and sapling vitality at the end of growing season of 2015 and 2016. Results showed that rainwater harvesting had significant effect on survival juniper saplings for both 2014 and 2015 years and current annual increment of collar diameter. The highest value of these parameters was noticed for plastic film treatment though the highest decrease of survival from 2014 to 2015 was noticed for this treatment too. Both rainwater harvesting and shading had no significant effect on height, crown area, vitality and their changes during the studied years. Overall, results confirmed the possibility of rainfed afforestation of Greek juniper in high altitude of Southern Alborz Mountain. To achieve this goal, usage of nylon at the surface of plantation pits is recommended. There is no need to use artificial shading for planted saplings.
- Ali Ahmad Korori, S. and Khoshnevis, M., 2000. Ecological and Environmental Studies of Juniperus habitats in Iran. Research Institute of Forest and Rangelands, Tehran, 208 p.
- Ameri, A.A. and Keneshloo, H., 2011. Effects of irrigation intervals and water storage methods on survival and growth characteristics of Acacia nilotica. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 19(3): 421-431 (In Persian).
- Ameri, A.A. and Keneshloo, H., 2014. Effects of rain storage method and irrigation interval on growth and primary establishment of Prosopis cineraria and Ziziphus spina-christi at south of Balochistan. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 21(4): 756-767 (In Persian).
- Anonymous., 2008. Manual for rangelands rehabilitation using rainfall storage methods. Published by Management and Planning Organization, No. 419, Tehran, 63p (In Persian).
- Beniwal, R.S., Hooda, M.S. and Polle, A., 2011. Amelioration of planting stress by soil amendment with a hydrogel-mycorrhiza mixture for early establishment of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings. Annals of Forest Science, 68: 803-810.
- Chen, S., Zommorodi, M., Fritz, E., Wang, S. and Huttermann, A., 2004. Hydrogel modified uptake of salt ions and calcium in Populus euphratica under saline conditions. Trees, 18: 175-183.
- Chirino, E., Vilagrosa, A. and Vallejo, V.R., 2011. Using hydrogel and clay to improve the water status of seedlings for dryland restoration. Plant Soil, 344: 99-110.
- Climent, J.M., Aranda, I., Alonso, J., Pardos, J.A. and Gil, L., 2006. Developmental constraints limit the response of Canary Island pine seedlings to combined shade and drought. Forest Ecology and Management, 231: 164-168.
- Demel, T., 1997. Seedling population and regeneration of woody species in dry Aformontane forest of Ethiopia. Forest Ecology and Management, 98(2): 149-165.
- Eslami, A. and Farzamnia, M., 2009. Effect of mulch material on increasing soil water holding capacity and Pistachio yield. Iranian Journal of Irrigation and Drainage, 3(2): 79-87 (In Persian).
- Espelta, J.M., Retana, J. and Habrouk, A., 2003. An economic and ecological multi-criteria evaluation of reforestation methods to recover burned Pinus nigra forests in NE Spain. Forest Ecology and Management, 180: 185-198.
- Huang, X., Xiao, X., Zhang, S., Korpelainen, H. and Li, C., 2009. Leaf morphological and physiological responses to drought and shade in two Populus cathayana populations. Biologia Plantarum, 53(3): 588-592.
- Huang, X., Yin, Ch., Duan, B. and Li, Ch., 2008. Interactions between drought and shade on growth and physiological traits in two Populus cathayana populations. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 38(7): 1877-1887.
- Keneshloo, H., 2013. Autecology of Moringa peregerina, Capparis decidua, Salvadora oleiodes and restoration habitats and afforestation of Moringa. Final Report of Research Project, Published by Research Institute of Forest and Rangelands, Tehran, 372p (In Persian).
- Khoshnevis, M., 2015. Rehabilitation of Iran juniper forests by seedling and sowing in Tehran province. Final Report of Research Project, Published by Research Institute of Forest and Rangelands, Tehran, 67p (In Persian).
- Khosrojerdi, E., Darroudi, H. and Namdost, T., 2008. Effects of nurse plants and geographical direction on survival and growth of Juniperus excelsa seedlings in the Hezar Masjed forests. Iranian Journal of Biology, 21(5): 760-768 (In Persian).
- Maschinscki, J.J.F., Baggs, S. and Sacchi, C.F., 2004. Seedling recruitment and survival of an endangered limestone endemic in its natural habitat and experimental reintroduction sites. American Journal of Botany, 91: 689-698.
- Mirzashahi, K. and Bazargan, K., 2015. Management of soil organic matter. Technical Report, Published by Soil and Water Research Institute, Tehran, 19p (In Persian).
- Niinemets, Ü. and Valladares, F., 2006. Tolerance to shade, drought, and waterlogging of temperate northern Hemisphere trees and shrubs. Ecological Monographs, 76: 521-547.
- Prinz, D., 2001. Water harvesting for afforestation in dry areas. Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Rainwater Catchment Systems. Mannheim, Germany, 10-14 Sep. 2001: 195-198.
- Rad, M.H., 1999. Effect of mulch materials on establishment and growing of Holoxylon. Proceeding of the 7th National Conference on Irrigation and Evapotranspiration. Kerman, Iran, 1-3 Mar. 1999: 460-469 (In Persian).
- Ravanbakhsh, H., Marvie Mohajer, M.R. and Etemad, V., 2010. Natural regeneration of woody species in woodlands of southern slopes of Elborz mountains (Case study: Latyan watershed). Iranian Journal of Forest, 2(2): 113-125 (In Persian).
- Shao, J., Chen, S., Wang, R., Zhang, X. and Jiang, J., 2007. Enhancement of hydrogel on salt resistance of Populus popularis and its mechanism. Journal Beijing for University, 29: 79-84.
- Smith, T.M. and Huston, M.A., 1989. A theory of the spatial and temporal dynamics of plant communities. Vegetatio, 83: 49-69.
- Welvaret, W. and Poppe, J., 1986. Influence of plastic mulching and disinfection on the fungal flora of soils in Belgium. EPPO Bulletin, 16(2): 311-316.
- Zangooei Nasab, Sh., Emami, H., Astaraei, A.R. and Yari, A.R., 2013. Effects of stockosorb hydrogel and irrigation intervals on some soil physical properties and growth of Haloxylon seedling. Journal of Soil Management and Sustainable Production, 3(1): 167-182 (In Persian).