رابطه بین گروه‌گونه‌های اکولوژیک با شاخص‌های غیرپارامتریک تنوع زیستی و عامل‌های محیطی در ارسباران (مطالعه موردی: حوضه آبخیز ایلگنه‌چای و کلیبرچای)

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه جنگل‌شناسی و اکولوژی جنگل، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

2 دانشیار، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی خاتم‌الانبیاء(ص) بهبهان، بهبهان، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه سنجش از دور و GIS، دانشکده علوم جغرافیایی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

 هدف این پژوهش، طبقه‌­بندی اکوسیستمی منطقه ارسباران و تعیین مهم‌ترین ویژگی‌های محیطی مؤثر در تفکیک واحدهای مذکور بود. با استفاده از شبکه آماربرداری منظم- تصادفی با ابعاد 300×300 متر، 130 قطعه­‌نمونه دایره­‌ای شکل به ­مساحت 314 متر مربع مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. گونه­‌های درختی و درختچه­‌ای در قطعه­‌نمونه اصلی اندازه­‌گیری شدند. گونه، درصد تاج­‌پوشش و تعداد پایه به‌­عنوان معیارهای اندازه­‌گیری پوشش گیاهی درنظر گرفته شدند. نوع گونه­‌های علفی و درصد پوشش آن‌ها در ریزقطعه­‌نمونه­‌هایی به مساحت 3/14 مترمربع اندازه­‌گیری شدند. در طبقه‌­بندی واحدها از روش طبقه‌بندی پوشش گیاهی با به‌کارگیری تحلیل­ دوطرفه گونه‌های شاخص (TWINSPAN) و تحلیل تطبیقی (RA)، شش واحد تفکیک شد. تجزیه و تحلیل واحدها با استفاده از تحلیل واریانس یک‌­طرفه و تحلیل تشخیص و بر اساس ویژگی‌های توپوگرافیک رویشگاه و شاخص‌­های تنوع زیستی گیاهی انجام شد. بر اساس نتایج تحلیل تشخیص، دو متغیر توپوگرافی ارتفاع از سطح دریا و شیب- جهت و شاخص غنای گونه‌­ای مارگالف و شاخص‌های یکنواختی اسمیث - ویلسون، شلدون و سیمپسون و شاخص­‌های ناهمگنی (تنوع) سیمپسون، هیل (N1) و شانون- وینر به‌ترتیب اهمیت در توابع پنج­‌گانه تشخیص قرار گرفتند که در سطح اطمینان 99 درصد معنی‌­دار بودند. توابع به‌دست آمده، صحت طبقه‌­بندی واحدهای اکوسیستمی را 83/8% نشان داد. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که ویژگی‌های توپوگرافی نسبت به شاخص‌­های تنوع­ زیستی از اهمیت بیشتری در الگوی پراکنش جوامع گیاهی منطقه برخوردار بودند. طبقه‌­بندی اکوسیستمی هرچند که بر اساس تجزیه و تحلیل پوشش گیاهی تعیین می­شود، اما می‌­تواند پیش‌بینی قابل قبولی از ویژگی‌های محیطی ارائه کند.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The relationship between ecological species groups and non-parametric indicators of biodiversity and environmental factors in Arasbaran (Case study: Ilgenechai & Kaleybarchai Watershed)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Allahverdi Mohammadzadeh 1
  • Reza Basiri 2
  • Ali Asghar Torahi 3
1 Ph.D. Student, Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Department of Forest Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Recourses, Gorgan, Iran
2 Associate Prof., Faculty of Natural Resources, Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology, Behbahan, Iran
3 Asistant Prof., Department of Remote Sensing and GIS, Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was identification of ecosystem units in Arasbaran forests and determination of effective environmental factors and biodiversity indices on their distribution. For this purpose, 130 circular plots with an area of ​​314 m2 were examined in a random - systematic design with 300 × 300 m dimensions. Tree and shrub species in the original sample plots were measured. Species, canopy cover and vegetation cover were considered as basic measurement criteria. Herbaceous species were studied in micro sample plots, each 3.14 m2. Six ecological groups were classified using two-way analysis of indicator species (TWINSPAN) and comparative analysis (RA) methods. Analysis of groups was performed by applying analysis of variance and discriminant analysis based on topographic and biodiversity index. The discriminative analysis showed that altitude and gradient-direction as two topography variable, and the Margalef richness index, evenness indices of Smith - Wilson, Sheldon and Simpson, and heterogeneity (diversity) indices of Simpson, Hill (N1) and Shannon-Wiener were the five important indices which were significant (α = 0.01) which confirmed the accuracy of the classification at 83.8%. Therefore, it was concluded that topographical characteristics had more influence on the formation of ecosystem units than plant biodiversity indices. We also concluded that the ecological classification system can present a suitable prediction of environmental characteristics.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Discriminant analysis
  • ecosystem unit
  • evenness index
  • species richness index
  • topography

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