عنوان مقاله [English]
Logging secondary damages on remained trees are one of the challenges in management of uneven-aged stands which have been less studied in the northern forests of Iran. In this research decay frequency and volume of bole trees after 15 years from wound occurrence were studied through systematic-random sample plots with 1000m2 plots in the Nav-e Asalem forests, Iran. The conditions of trees were registered in two types: safe and wounded, the wounds were registered in two types: open and decayed; and volume of decayed bole was calculated by Smalian formula. Results indicated that 16.1% of wounds were led to bole decay. Decay frequency and volume were estimated to 5.5 trees ha-1 and 1.7 m3ha-1, respectively, that includes 1.96% of total trees and 0.72% of total stand volume. Coefficients of decay frequency and volume on the base of frequency of logging primary damage (12.2%) were calculated 0.16 and 0.06, respectively. Decay frequency of wounded trees bole were related with tree species, wound location, diameter at breast height (DBH), situation of wounded tree in stand, and slope aspect. Decay frequency and volume in the trees of lime and oak were more than other tree species. Decay frequency was increased by decreasing wounds distance from ground. Decay frequency and volume in the high diameter wounded trees were more than low diameter wounded trees. The wounds on the trees in edge of skid trails were more decayed than the other wounds. Decay frequency of wounded trees on the northern aspect slopes were more than the southern aspect slopes. In general, minimizing of primary logging damages, reducing harvest intensity, increasing logging period, and harvesting bole-decayed trees in the next logging periods are suggested.
- Bonyad, A. and Tavankar, F., 2016. Investigation on resistance of different tree species to logging wounds (Case study: district 1 of Asalem-Nav forest). Journal of Forest and Wood Product (Iranian Journal of Natural Resources), 68(4): 741-759 (In Persian).
- Camp, A., 2002. Damage to residual trees by four mechanized harvest systems operating in small-diameter, mixed conifer forests on steep slopes in northeastern Washington: a case study. Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 17(1): 14-22.
- Han, H.S., Kellogg, L.D., Filip, G.M. and Brown, T.D., 2000. Scar closure and future timber value losses from thinning damage in western Oregon. Forest Products Journal, 50(1): 36-42.
- Jourgholami, M., Rizvandi, V. and Majnounian, B., 2012. Evaluating the extent, patterns, size and distribution of tree scars following skidding operation (Case study: Kheyrud forest). Iranian Journal of Forest, 4(3): 187-196 (In Persian).
- Kartoolinejad, D., Najafi, A. and Kazemi-Najafi, S., 2013. Decay evaluation of damaged beech trees (Fagus orientalis L.) adjacent to skid trails by nondestructive stress wave technique. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 20(4): 622-633 (In Persian).
- Kovbasa, N.P., 1996. Distribution and spreading of wound rot in Belarus Spruce stands and measures to limit the losses. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Forest, Belarusian Plant Protection Research Institute, Priluki, Minsk, 148p.
- Majnounian, B., Jourgholami, M., Zobeiri, M. and Feghhi, J., 2010. Assessment of forest harvesting damage to residual stands and regenerations - a case study of Namkhaneh district in Kheyrud forest. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 7(1): 33-44 (In Persian).
- Marchi, E., Picchio, R., Spinelli, R., Verani, S., Venanzi, R. and Certini, G., 2014. Environmental impact assessment of different logging methods in pine forests thinning. Ecological Engineering, 70: 429-436.
- Naghdi, R., Rafatnia, N., Bagheri, I. and Hemati, V., 2008. Evaluation of residual damage in felling gaps and extraction routes in single selection method (Siyahkal forest). Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 16(1): 87-98 (In Persian).
- Nikooy, M. and Ershadifar, M., 2012. Effects of skid trail planning, landing construction and directional felling on normal selective logging in Caspian forest. Proceedings of 45th International Symposium on Forestry Mechanisation. Dubrovnik, Croatia, 8-12 Oct. 2012: pp: 1-9.
- Nikooy, M., Rashidi, R. and Kocheki, G., 2010. Residual trees injury assessment after selective cutting in broadleaf forest in Shafaroud. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 8(2): 173-179.
- Picchio, R., Magagnotti, N., Sirna, A. and Spinelli, R., 2012. Improved winching technique to reduce logging damage. Ecological Engineering, 47: 83-86.
- Picchio, R., Neri, F., Maesano, M., Savelli, S., Sirna, A., Blasi, S, Baldini, S. and Marchi, E., 2011. Growth effects of thinning damage in a Corsican pine (Pinus laricio Poiret) stand in central Italy. Forest Ecology and Management, 262: 237-243.
- Rostamian, M., Kavosi, M.R. and Shataee, S., 2013. Modeling topographic factors affecting bracket fungi dispersal in district 1 of the Shastkolateh forest of Gorgan. Iranian Journal of Forest and Range Protection Research, 10(2):130-145 (In Persian).
- Sist, P., Sheil, D., Kartawinata, K. and Priyadi, H., 2003. Reduced impact logging in Indonesian Borneo: some results confirming the need for new silvicultural prescriptions. Forest Ecology and Management, 179(1): 415-427.
- Steyrer, G., 1992. Extent and economical significance of stem decays in forestry enterprise. Austrian Journal of Forest Science, 109: 221-249.
- Tavankar, F. and Bonyad, A., 2014. Long-term effects of logging damages on quality of residual trees in the Asalem Nav forest. Journal of Environmental Studies, 40(1): 39-50 (In Persian).
- Tavankar, F., Bonyad, A. and Majnounian, B., 2015a. Affective factors on residual tree damage during selection cutting and cable-skidder logging in the Caspian forests, northern Iran. Ecological Engineering, 83(8): 505-512.
- Tavankar, T., Bonyad, A., Marchi, E., Venanzi, R. and Picchio, R., 2015b. Effect of logging wounds on diameter growth of beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) trees following selection cutting in Caspian forest of Iran. New Zealand Journal of Forest Science, 45(19): 1-7.
- Tavankar, F., Majnounian, B. and Bonyad, A., 2013. Felling and skidding damage to residual trees following selection cutting in Caspian forests of Iran. Journal of Forest Science, 59(5): 196-203.
- Vasiliauskas, R., 2001. Damage to trees due to forestry operations and its pathological significance in temperate forest: a literature review. Forestry, 74: 319-336.