نقش سایه در تعدیل عوارض ناشی از تنش خشکی بر فیزیولوژی نونهال بنه (Pistacia atlantica)

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری جنگل‌شناسی و اکولوژی جنگل، دانشکده علوم جنگل، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه جنگل‌شناسی و اکولوژی جنگل، دانشکده علوم جنگل، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

3 استاد پژوهش، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

4 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گلستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، گرگان، ایران

5 دانشیار پژوهش، گروه مهندسی بیوتکنولوژی، دانشکده مهندسی انرژی و فناوری‌های نوین، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف بررسی نقش سایه در تعدیل عوارض ناشی از تنش خشکی بر فیزیولوژی نونهال‌های بنه (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) در تابستان 1395 و در ایستگاه تحقیقات البرز کرج انجام شد. نونهال‌های بنه در شرایط تیمارهای تنش خشکی (در سه سطح فاقد تنش، تنش متوسط و تنش شدید) و سایبان مصنوعی (در سه سطح فاقد سایه، سایه کم و سایه متوسط) در قالب طرح کرت‎های خردشده با پایه بلوک‎های کامل تصادفی قرار گرفتند. پس از گذشت یک ماه، مشخصه‌های فیزیولوژی برگ شامل محتوای نسبی آب، محتوای قندهای محلول و پرولین، غلظت رنگیزه‌های گیاهی، فعالیت آنزیم کاتالاز و نرخ نشت الکترولیت اندازه‌گیری شدند. تنش خشکی باعث کاهش شدید محتوای نسبی آب و غلظت کلروفیل کل،‌ a و b برگ شد. در مقابل، سایه با تعدیل تنش خشکی، مقدار مشخصه‌های مذکور را به‌‌طور معنی‌داری افزایش داد. تنش خشکی باعث تحریک مکانسیم‌های مقاومت در نونهال‌های بنه شد و محتوای پرولین، کاروتنوئید و فعالیت آنزیم کاتالاز افزایش معنی‌داری پیدا کردند، اما سایه باعث کاهش معنی‌دار این مشخصه‌ها و همچنین نسبت کلروفیل a/b شد. برهمکنش سایه و تنش خشکی بر مشخصه‌های کلروفیل a و فعالیت آنزیم کاتالاز معنی‌دار بود و تیمارهای تنش خشکی پاسخ‌های متفاوتی به سایه نشان دادند. به‌طور کلی، نتایج این پژوهش حاکی از نقش مثبت سایه در تعدیل تنش خشکی بر نونهال‌های بنه بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Shade role in facilitation drought stress symptoms on physiology of mount Atlas mastic (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) seedlings

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Hossein Sadeghzadeh Hallaj 1
  • Davoud Azadfar 2
  • Hossein Mirzaei Nodoushan 3
  • Mohammad Hossein Arzanesh 4
  • Masoud Tohidfar 5
1 Ph.D. Student Slilviculture and Forest Ecology, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
2 Associate Prof., Department of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Grogan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
3 Prof., Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
4 Assistant Prof., Research Division of Soil and Water, Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Gorgan, Iran
5 Associate Prof., Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Faculty of New Technologies and Energy Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

This investigation was carried out in Albroz research station complex (Karaj, Iran) during 2014 summer. Mount Atlas mustic (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) seedlings were treated by drought (moderate, sever and without drought stress) and shading (low, moderate and without shade) factors in a split plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design. After one month, physiological characteristics of leaves including RWC, soluble sugars, proline and pigments content, catalase enzyme activity and ion leakage were studied. Drought stress caused severe decrease in RWC and a, b and total chlorophyll contents. In contrast, shade by ameliorating drought stress significantly increased these parameters. Drought induced tolerance mechanisms in saplings and increased proline and carotenoid content while shade decreased these parameters significantly as well as a to b chlorophyll ratio. Interaction of drought and shade was significant for a chlorophyll and catalase activity, suggested that, drought treatments showed different responses to shade. Overall, results revealed positive effect of shade on drought induced saplings.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • chlorophyll
  • osmolites
  • photoxidative stress
  • pigments

- Alberte, R.S. and Thornber, J.Ph., 1977. Water stress effects on the content and organization of chlorophyll in mesophyll and bundle sheath chloroplast of maize. Plant Physiology, 59: 351-353.

- Amini, Z. and Haddad, R., 2013. Role of photosynthetic pigments and antioxidant enzymes against oxidative stress. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Researches, 26(3): 251-265 (In Persian).

- Anjum, S.A., Xie, X., Wang, L.C., Saleem, M.F., Man, C. and Lei, W., 2011. Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of plants to drought stress. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6: 2026-2032.

- Anonymous, 2016. Meteorological data of Karaj climatology station (2004-2014). Iran Meteorological Organization. Available at: www.irimo.ir (In Persian).

- Ashton, M.S., Singhakumara, B.M.P. and Gamage, H.K., 2006. Interaction between light and drought affect performance of Asian tropical tree species that have differing topographic affinities. Forest Ecology and Management, 221: 42-51.

- Basra, A.S. and Basra, R.K., 1997. Mechanism of Environmental Stress Resistance in Plants. Harward Academic Publishers, Harward, 407p.

- Bates, I.S., Waldern, R.P. and Teare, I.D., 1973. Rapid determination of free Prolin for water stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39: 205-207.

- Beers, R.F.Jr. and Sizer, I.W., 1952. A spectrophotometric method for measuring the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 195: 133-140.

- Behra, R.K., Mishra, P.C. and Choudhur, N.K., 2002. High irradiance and water stress induce alteration in pigment composition and chloroplast activities of primary wheat leaves. Journal of Plant Physiology, 159: 967-973.

- Ben Hamed, S., Lefi, E. and Chaieb, M., 2016. Physiological responses of Pistacia vera L. versus Pistacia atlantica Desf. to water stress conditions under arid bio climate in Tunisia. Scientia Horticulturae, 203: 224-230.

- Boyer, J.S., 1968. Measurement of the water status of plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 9: 351-363.

- Callaway, R.M., Pennings, S.C. and Richards, C.L., 2003. Phenotypic plasticity and interactions among plants. Ecology, 84: 1115-1128.

- Caspersen, J.P. and Kobe, R.K., 2001. Interspecific variation in sapling mortality in relation to growth and soil moisture. Oikos, 92: 160-168.

- Duan, B., Lu, Y., Yin, C., Junttila, O. and Li, C., 2005. Physiological responses to drought and shade in two contrasting Picea asperata populations. Physiologia Plantarum, 124: 476-484.

- Epron, D. and Dreyer, E., 1992. Effects of severe dehydration on leaf photosynthesis in Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. photosystem II efficiency, photochemical and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching and electrolyte leakage. Tree Physiology, 10: 273-284.

- Evans, J.R., 1988. Acclimation by thylakoid membranes to growth irradiance and the partitioning of nitrogen between soluble and thylakoid proteins. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 15: 93-106.

- Goel, A., Coel, A.K. and Sheran, J.F., 2003. Changes in oxidative stress enzymes during artificial aging in cotton seeds. Journal of Plant Physiology, 160: 1093-1100.

- Huang, X., Yin, Ch., Duan, B. and Li, Ch., 2008. Interactions between drought and shade on growth and physiological traits in two Populus cathayana populations. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 38(7): 1877-1887.

- Irigoyen, J.J., Eineric, D.W. and Sanchez-Diaz, M., 1992. Water stress induced changes in concentrations of Proline and total soluble sugars in nodulated alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants. Physiologia Plantarum, 84(1): 58-60.

- Jahanpour, F.A., Fatahi, M. and Karamian, R., 2010. Studying the influence of light on surviving of pistachio saplings in Lorestan province. Iranian Journal of Forest, 3(2): 91-98 (In Persian).

- Johnson, N.L., 1949. Systems of frequency curves generated by methods of translation. Biometrika, 36(1/2): 149-176.

- Joulaei Manesh, N., 2011. Study on anatomical, physiological and biochemical responses of Atlas mastic tree (Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica) seedlings under drought stress. M.Sc. thesis, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Yasouj University, Yasouj, 64p (In Persian).

- Kafi, M., Borzoee, A., Salehi, M., Kamandi, A., Masoumi, A. and Nabati, J., 2012. Physiology of Environmental Stress in Plants. Published by Jihad-e-Daneshgahi of Mashhad, Mashhad, 502p (In Persian).

- Li, Y., Zhao, H., Duan, B.L., Korpelainen, H. and Li, Ch., 2011. Effect of drought and ABA on growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant system of Cotinus coggygria seedlings under two different light conditions. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 71: 107-113.

- Lichtenthaler, H.K., 1987. Chlorophylls and carotenoids-pigments of photosynthetic bio membranes: 350-382. In: Packer, L. and Douce, R. (Eds.). Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 28, Plant Cell Membranes. Academic Press, London, 762p.

- Mirzaei, J., 2011. Identification of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Pistacia atlantica and P. khinjuk in Ilam province and their effects on seedlings growth under drought stress. Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, 157p (In Persian).

- Montanaro, G., Dichio, B. and Xiloyannis, C., 2009. Shade mitigates photo inhibition and enhances water use efficiency in kiwi fruit under drought. Photosynthetica, 47(3): 363-371.

- Munne-Bosch, S. and Penuelas, J., 2003. Photo-and antioxidant protection during summer leaf senescence in Pistscia lentiscus L. grown under Mediterranean field conditions. Annals of Botany, 92: 385-391.

- Negahdar Saber, M.R. and Abbasi, A.R., 2010. Impacts of ground cover vegetation on natural regeneration of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica) (case study: wild pistachio experimental forest, Fars province). Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 18(4): 630-638 (In Persian).

- Owji, M.Gh. and Hamzepour, M., 2003. Comprehensive study on Beneh (Pistacia atlantica) exprimental forest of Fars province of Iran. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 10(1): 283-308 (In Persian).

- Ranjbar Fordoei, A., Samson, R., Van Damme, P. and Lemeur, R., 2000. Effect of drought stress induced by polyethylene glycol on pigment content and photosynthetic gas exchange of Pistacia khinjuk and P. mutica. Photosynthetica, 38(3): 443-447.

- Sack, L. and Grubb, P.J., 2002. The combined impacts of deep shade and drought on the growth and biomass allocation of shade-tolerant woody seedlings. Oecologia, 131: 175-185.

- Schall, P., Lödige, C., Beck, M. and Ammer, C., 2012. Biomass allocation to roots and shoots is more sensitive to shade and drought in European beech than in Norway spruce seedlings. Forest Ecology and Management, 266: 246-253.

- Schonfeld, M.A., Johnson, R.C., Carver, B.F. and Mornhinweg, D.W., 1988. Water relations in winter wheat as drought resistance indicators. Crop Science, 28: 526-531.

- Smith, T.M. and Huston, M.A., 1989. A theory of the spatial and temporal dynamics of plant communities. Vegetatio, 83: 49-69.

- Valladares, F. and Pearcy, R., 2002. Drought can be more critical in the shade than in the sun: a field study of carbon gain and photo- inhibition in a Californian shrub during a dry El Nino year. Plant Cell Environment, 25: 749-759.