عنوان مقاله [English]
Quality and quantity of forest utilization belong to the most debated issues in managing the Hyrcanian forests. There are two conflicting views of 1) sustainable forest utilization and 2) forest rest. The present study aimed to apply these two approaches. Therefore, Shafarood forests located in Guilan province were selected. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) were applied to prescribe the policy and planning of forest utilization and rest by forest sector stakeholders, referred to as participants here. The statistical population i.e. participants group includes local communities and experts at regional, provincial and national levels (in total 11 people from local communities and 48 experts). The management strategy (aggressive, competitive, defensive or conservative) was selected based on the results of SWOT and the Space Matrix. Subsequently, Results showed that 73% of participants agreed with sustainable utilization, while 27% accepted the rest of forest. In addition, the most important opportunity and strength associated with forest rest were increase of sustainability and employment in the forestry and wood industry sectors on national level. Furthermore, the most eminent opportunity and strength included reduction of soil erosion and soil conservation. Based on participant’s views, the conservative strategy for sustainable utilization and the defensive strategy for the forest rest were suggested. Based on the latter, the current plan should be either ceased or revised by taking the suitable planning should in all factors contributing to forest degradation, including the presence of livestock, forest dwellers, timber smuggling, landuse conversion to orchard and villa, and inappropriate utilization.
- Abdi, E., Majnounian, B., Rahimi, H., Zobeiri, M. and Habibi Bibalani, Gh., 2011. Assessment of root tensile strength of some Hyrcanian species for soil stabilization (Case study: Patom District, Kheyroud Educational and Experimental Forest). Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 64(3): 339-351 (In Persian).
- Ajami, M., Khormali, F. and Ayoubi, Sh., 2012. Role of deforestation and land use change on soil erodibility of loess in eastern Golestan province. Pajouhesh & Sazandegi, 94: 36-44 (In Persian).
- Aliahmadi, A., 2008. A Comprehensive Approaches on Strategic Management. Tolid-e Danesh Press, Tehran, 465p (In Persian).
- Amirkabiri, A., 2012. Strategic Management. Negah-e Danesh Press, Tehran, 320p (In Persian).
- Anonymous, 2013. Official website of Shafaroud forest company. http://www.shafaroud.com
- Ebrahimian, M., 2011. Study affecting deforestation and promotional strategies to deal with it from the perspective of experts in Mazandaran province. M.Sc thesis, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, 122p (In Persian).
- Ebrahimian Joybari, N., 2011. Iranian penal policy in the face of deforestation, with emphasis on the Hyrcanian forests. M.Sc. thesis, Qom University, Qom, 122p (In Persian).
- Ershadifar, M., Nikooy M. and Naghdi, R., 2011. Ability assessment of felling crew in directional felling in west forest of Guilan province. Iranian Journal of Forest, 3(2): 169-176 (In Persian).
- Eshaghi Rad, J., Seyyedi, N. and Hasanzad Navrodi, I., 2009. Effect of single selection method on woody species diversity (Case study: Janbesara district-Guilan). Iranian Journal of Forest, 1(4): 277-285 (In Persian).
- Fajvan, M., Knipling, K.E. and Tift, B.D., 2002. Damage to appalachian hardwoods from diameterlimit harvesting and shelter wood establishment cutting. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, 19(2): 80-87.
- Fayzi, K. and Dosthosaini, M., 2013. Delphi Method to Study Decision-making and Futurology. Industrial Management Institute Press, Tehran, 144p (In Persian).
- Froese, K. and Han, H.S., 2006. Residual stand damage from cut-to-length thinning of a mixed conifer stand in northern Idaho. Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 21(3): 142-148.
- Goushegir, S.Z., Feghhi, J., Marvi Mohajer, M.R. and Makhdoum, M.F., 2011. Investigation on the concept of control in forest management plans of Caspian forests (Case study: Kheyroud forest). Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 19(2): 181-193 (In Persian).
- Haidari, M., 2015. A framework for sustainable forest utilization using ecosystem assessment method in Zagros forest (Case study: Armardeh forest of Baneh). Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, 204p (In Persian).
- Hejazyan, M. and Lotfalian, M., 2015. The consequences of non-normative reduce the volume of wood harvested from forests in the north of Iran. Journal of Forest and Range, 105: 70-75 (In Persian).
- Jourgholami, M. and Majnounian, B., 2010. Traditional logging method in hyrcanian forest, impacts to forest stand and soil (Case study: Kheyroud forest). Iranian Journal of Forest, 2(3): 221-229 (In Persian).
- Keyani, F., Jalalian, A., Pashaee Aval, A. and Khademi, H., 2007. The role of deforestation, degraded pastures on loess soil quality indicators in Golestan province. Water and Soil Sciences, 13(3): 453-463 (In Persian).
- Leyani, G. and Esmaeili, A., 2013. Study effect of forest utilization plan in Hyrcanian forest in regulating wood imports to Iran. Agricultural Economics Research, 5(4): 23-42.
- Lotfalian, M., 2012. Logging. Ayizh Press, Tehran, 488p (In Persian).
- Lotfalian, M., Parsakhoo, A. and Majnounian, B., 2008. A method for estimating Rials damages to stand and regeneration in forest exploitation (Case study: Aland and Vastun series). Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 10(2): 52-61 (In Persian).
- Majnounian, B., Abdi, E., Zobeiri, M. and Puya, K., 2010. Monitoring the conditions of forest road network compared to the standards (Case study: Namkhaneh district of Kheyrood forest). Journal of Forest and Wood Product, 63(2): 177-186 (In Persian).
- Omidvar, A., Payam, H., Fallahchay, M.M. and Hemati, V., 2008. Natural regeneration of beech in two single selection and Shelterwood cutting. Life Sciences, 2(4): 1-13.
- Parsaeyan, A. and Erabi, M., 2003. Strategic Management. Pazhoheshaeyeh Farhangi Press, Tehran, 658p (In Persian).
- Rishi, P., 2006. Joint forest management in India: An attitudinal analysis of stakeholders. Journal of Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 51: 345-354.
- Seablom, T.J. and Reed, D.D., 2005. Assessment of factors contributing to residual tree damage from mechanized harvesting in northern hardwood. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, 2(22): 124-131.
- Shayan, M., Marvi Mohadjer, M.R., Etemad, E., Javanbakht, A.H. and Henareh Khalyani, J., 2014. Grazing losses in natural forests of Patom section, Kheyroud district and its role on stability of forest ecosystems. Journal of Renewable Resources, 5(1): 1-14 (In Persian).
- Dardi Takeh, G., Jalali, S.G., Hosseini, S.M. and Tabari, M., 2004. Quantity and quality comparsion of natural regeneration stablishment Fagus, Acer and Carpinus in the forest stands under management of tree and group selection system (Dr. Bahramnia forest management plan). Journal of Agriculture Science and Natural Resources, 10(4): 125-134 (In Persian).
- Tavankar, F., Bonyad, A.A. and Majnounian, B., 2009. The effects of harvesting on forest regeneration and soil compaction ground skidding system (Case study: Asalem forest). Water and Soil Sciences, 4(3): 187-196 (In Persian).
- Webb, N.P., Stokes, C.J. and Marshall, N.A., 2013. Integrating biophysical and socioeconomic evaluations to improve the efficacy of adaptation assessments for agriculture. Global Environmental Change, 23(5): 1164-1177.
- Zandebasiri, M. and Ghazanfari, H., 2010. The main consequences of affecting factors on forest management of local settlers in the Zagros forests (Case study: Ghalegol watershed in Lorestan province). Iranian Journal of Forest, 2(2): 127-138 (In Persian).