بررسی و سیاست‌گذاری برنامه تنفس یا بهره‌برداری جنگل‌های هیرکانی (مطالعه موردی: جنگل‌های حوزه شفارود)

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری جنگل‌داری، مرکز تحقیقات و نوآوری سازمان اتکا، تهران، ایران

2 مدیر تحقیقات، نوآوری و مشاور مدیر عامل در امور جنگل، شرکت جنگل شفارود، گیلان، ایران

چکیده

یکی از مهم‌ترین چالش‌ها در مدیریت جنگل‌های هیرکانی ادامه روند بهره‌برداری یا تنفس جنگل است. دو دیدگاه متضاد شامل موافقین بهره‌برداری جنگل و موافقین تنفس جنگل در این زمینه وجود دارد. هدف از پژوهش پیش‌رو راهبردگذاری و برنامه‌ریزی بهره‌برداری پایدار و تنفس جنگل بود. برای اجرای این پژوهش، جنگل‌های تحت مدیریت حوزه شفارود در استان گیلان انتخاب شد. به‌کمک نظرسنجی از نقش‌آفرینان جنگل‌های هیرکانی، تحلیل چهارگانه قوت‌ها، ضعف‌ها، فرصت‌ها و تهدیدها انجام شد. جامعه آماری شامل دو بخش جوامع محلی (11 نفر) و کارشناسان خبره در سطح منطقه‌ای، استانی و کشوری (48 نفر) بود. براساس نتایج ماتریس ارزیابی موقعیت و اقدام راهبردی برای بهره‌برداری و تنفس جنگل، راهبرد مدیریتی (تهاجمی، رقابتی، تدافعی یا محافظه‌کارانه) شناسایی شد. نتایج نشان داد که 73 درصد از جامعه آماری موافق بهره‌برداری از جنگل و 27 درصد موافق برنامه تنفس جنگل بودند. مهم‌ترین فرصت و قوت بهره‌برداری جنگل، افزایش پویایی و پایداری توده و اشتغال پایدار در زمینه جنگل‌داری و صنایع چوب در سطح ملی بود. مهم‌ترین فرصت و قوت تنفس جنگل نیز کاهش فرسایش خاک و حفاظت خاک بود. با تحلیل نظرات نقش‌آفرینان اکوسیستم (جامعه آماری)، راهبرد مدیریتی تهاجمی برای بهره‌برداری جنگل و راهبرد تدافعی برای تنفس جنگل تعیین شد. بنابر راهبرد تدافعی در برنامه تنفس جنگل، این برنامه ‌باید متوقف یا اصلاح شود و برای تمام عامل‌های تخریب جنگل شامل حضور دام در جنگل، حضور جوامع جنگل‌نشین، قاچاق چوب، تغییر کاربری جنگل به باغ و ویلا و بهره‌برداری غیراصولی، برنامه‌ریزی لازم انجام شود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The study and policy cessation of forest utilization or forest logging in hyrcanian forests (Case study: Shafarood forests)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maziar Haidari 1
  • Behrooz Karamdoost Maryan 2
1 Ph.D. Forestry, ETKA Organization Research & Innovation Center, Tehran, Iran
2 Research Director, Innovation and Consulting CEO in the Forest, Shafaroud Forest Company, Gilan, Iran
چکیده [English]

 
Quality and quantity of forest utilization belong to the most debated issues in managing the Hyrcanian forests. There are two conflicting views of 1) sustainable forest utilization and 2) forest rest. The present study aimed to apply these two approaches. Therefore, Shafarood forests located in Guilan province were selected. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) were applied to prescribe the policy and planning of forest utilization and rest by forest sector stakeholders, referred to as participants here. The statistical population i.e. participants group includes local communities and experts at regional, provincial and national levels (in total 11 people from local communities and 48 experts). The management strategy (aggressive, competitive, defensive or conservative) was selected based on the results of SWOT and the Space Matrix. Subsequently, Results showed that 73% of participants agreed with sustainable utilization, while 27% accepted the rest of forest. In addition, the most important opportunity and strength associated with forest rest were increase of sustainability and employment in the forestry and wood industry sectors on national level. Furthermore, the most eminent opportunity and strength included reduction of soil erosion and soil conservation. Based on participant’s views, the conservative strategy for sustainable utilization and the defensive strategy for the forest rest were suggested. Based on the latter, the current plan should be either ceased or revised by taking the suitable planning should in all factors contributing to forest degradation,  including the presence of livestock, forest dwellers, timber smuggling, landuse conversion to orchard and villa, and inappropriate utilization.   
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aggressive
  • defensive
  • Hyrcanian forests
  • Shafarood

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