تغییرات جوامع گیاهی جنگل‌های زاگرس میانی تحت تأثیر ویژگی‌های فیزیوگرافی و خاک

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 نویسنده مسئول، دانشیار، گروه جنگل‌داری، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم‌آباد

2 دانشجوی دکتری جنگلشناسی و اکولوژی جنگل، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان

3 دانشجوی دکتری سیستماتیک گیاهی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

از آنجایی‌که جنگل‌های زاگرس تحت تأثیر عامل‌های اکولوژیک متعدد (به‌ویژه خاک و فیزیوگرافی) شاهد استقرار تیپ‌های رویشی مختلف هستند، پژوهش پیش‌رو با هدف تفکیک تیپ‌های رویشی جنگل‌های زاگرس میانی برمبنای تشابه گونه‌ای و تبیین ارتباط پوشش علفی کف این جنگل‌ها با شرایط ادافیکی و فیزیوگرافی به‌منظور مدیریت اکولوژیک این اکوسیستم‌ها، انجام شد. بدین‌منظور 21 قطعه‌نمونه اصلاح‌شده ویتاکر به‌طور تصادفی در تیپ‌های پوشش گیاهی هشتادپهلو استان لرستان انتخاب شد. در این قطعات نمونه، گونه و درصد پوشش آشکوب علفی، ویژگی‌های فیزیوگرافی و برخی متغیرهای ادافیکی اندازه‌گیری شد. سپس ارتباط آشکوب علفی کف با متغیرهای محیطی از طریق طبقه‌بندی با روش تجزیه دوطرفه گونه‌های شاخص (TWINSPAN) و رج‌بندی با روش‌های تجزیه تطبیقی قوس‌گیری‌شده(DCA) و تحلیل تطبیقی متعارفی (CCA) بررسی شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس، رج‌بندی و طبقه‌بندی پوشش گیاهی نشان داد که تفکیک تیپ‌های رویشی، پراکنش گونه‌ها و همچنین پراکنش گروه گونه‌های اکولوژیک در زاگرس میانی به‌طور عمده تحت تأثیر ارتفاع از سطح دریا، شیب، جهت و متغیرهای کربن آلی و ازت خاک بود. نتایج طبقه‌بندی پوشش گیاهی نیز با تفکیک پوشش گیاهی منطقه به سه گروه اکولوژیک متشکل از 12 گونه شاخص، نتایج رج‌بندی را تا حد زیادی تأیید کرد. با توجه به وسعت عرصه مورد مطالعه (سیمای سرزمین) و انتخاب تصادفی واحدهای نمونه‌برداری در تیپ‌های فیزیونومیک و اکوتون‌ها، هم‌پوشانی زیادی در نتایج رج‌بندی و طبقه‌بندی پوشش گیاهی این مطالعه مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Plant communities change under different physiographic conditions and soil properties in the central Zagros forests

نویسندگان [English]

  • Babak Pilehvar 1
  • Hamzeh Jafari Sarabi 2
  • Gholam Hoseyn Veiskarami 3
1 ssociate Prof., Department of Forestry, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University
2 Ph.D. Student Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University
3 Ph.D. Student Plant Systematic, Faculty of Sciences, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Different physiographic conditions and soil properties have resulted in the establishment of different plant communities in central Zagros forests. This study aimed to differentiate these plant communities by means of detecting the species similarity and relations between understory plant vegetation, physiographic conditions and soil properties. Sampling was conducted using 21 modified multiscale Whittaker plots that were randomly distributed amongst the vegetation types. In each plot, species name and canopy cover as well as physiographic data were recorded for each individual tree, and soil specimens were sampled. The relationships between understory vegetation and environmental variables were investigated by means of two way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) classification method as well as two ordination approaches, including detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The results of ANOVA, ordination, and classification in segregation of vegetation types showed that the distribution of vegetation types, species and also ecological species groups in central Zagros is affected by altitude, slope, geographical aspects, and the amount of soil organic C and N. Moreover, the results of vegetation classification segregated local vegetation into three ecological groups, including 12 indicator species. These results were in line with the ordination results. This study showed a high resemblance between the results of vegetation classification and ordination in accordance to the extent of study area (landscape scale) and random selection of sampling units at the physiognomic types and the ecotones.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Classification
  • Hashtad Pahloo
  • indicator species
  • ordination
  • modified multiscale Whittaker plots

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