اثر تلقیح قارچ‌های میکوریزی و باکتری Pseudomonas fluorescens بر رشد و زنده‌مانی گیاهچه‌های به‌دست‌آمده از کشت بافت انگور فرنگی خراسانی ( Ribes khorasanicum Saghafi & Assadi)

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی


1 دکتری جنگل‌داری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم دریایی نور، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشیار پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی و شعبه مشهد، پژوهشکده بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه جنگل‌داری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم دریایی نور، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

4 استاد، گروه جنگل‌داری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم دریایی نور، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

5 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی


یکی از گونه‌های بومی و ارزشمند خراسان رضوی، انگور‌فرنگی خراسانی یا قره‌قات ( Ribes khorasanicum Saghafi & Assadi) است که در ارتفاعات رشته کوه هزارمسجد در محدوده کوچکی از شهرستان‌های درگز و کلات به‌صورت توده‌های پراکنده وجود دارد. این گونه به‌دلیل دخالت‌های انسانی، نیاز اکولوژیکی زیاد و قوه ‌نامیه کم بذر آن، در حال از بین رفتن است. هدف از پژوهش پیش‌رو بررسی نقش میکروارگانیسم‌های همزیست در بهبود رشد و زنده‌مانی گیاهچه‌های به‌دست‌آمده از کشت بافت قره‌قات بود. بدین منظور آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح کامل تصادفی انجام شد. تیمارها شامل قارچ میکوریزی (فاقد میکوریز، تلقیح گونه‌های Rhizophagus intraradices، Glomus mosseae، Rhizophagus intraradices + Glomus mosseaeو قارچ‌های جداسازی شده از رویشگاه) و تیمار باکتری (فاقد باکتری و تلقیح باکتری Pseudomonas fluorescens) بودند. نتایج بررسی‌ها نشان داد که تلقیح باکتری باعث بهبود درصد زنده‌مانی، سطح تاج و تعداد برگ گیاهچه‌ها شد. همچنین تلقیح قارچ‌های میکوریزی استخراج‌شده از رویشگاه باعث بهبود درصد استقرار میکوریز در ریشه گیاهچه‌ها، درصد زنده‌مانی، ارتفاع، سطح تاج و تعداد برگ گیاهچه‌ها شد. ترکیب قارچ‌های میکوریزی Rhizophagus intraradices +Glomus mosseaeنیز باعث بهبود درصد زنده‌مانی نهال‌ها شد. در مجموع می‌توان گفت که تلقیح قارچ و باکتری باعث بهبود سازگاری گیاهچه‌ها به شرایط خارج شیشه ‌شده است.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of mycorrhizal fungi and Pseudomonas fluorescens Bacteria on the growth and survival of Ribes khorasanicum Saghafi & Assadi tissue culture plantlets

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hadi Darroudi 1
  • Abbas Safarnejad 2
  • Moslem Akbarinia 3
  • Seyyed Mohsen Hosseini 4
  • Mohammad Hajian Shahri 5
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University
2 Associate Prof., Research Division of Natural Resources, Razavi Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center and Mashhad Branch, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO)
3 Associate Prof., Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University
4 Prof., Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University
5 Assistant Prof., Plant Protection Research Department, Razavi Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO
چکیده [English]

Ribes khorasanicum Saghafi & Assadi is considered as one of the valuable medicinal native species of Razavi Khorasan province that is distributed across high-altitudes of Hezar Masjed Mountains in a small range of Dargaz and Kalat cities as scattered patches. Because of human interference, high ecological requirements and low seeds germination this species is currently endangered and as even considered to be prone to extinction. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of symbiotic microorganisms in the growth and survival of plantlets produced by tissue culture techniques. For this purpose a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design. Mycorrhiza fungi treatments included treatments without mycorrhiza, those with Rhizophagus interaradics, Glomus mosseae, as well as R. interaradics + G. mosseae and fungus that were separated from the test site. Bacteria treatments included those without bacteria and those with Pseudomonas fluorescens inoculation. The results showed that bacteria inoculation could improve survival, crown area and number of leaves. The results also showed that the inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi separated from the site habitat improved root colonization, survival, height, number of leaves and crown area. Furthermore, the combination of mycorrhizal fungi R. intraradices + G. mosseae improved the survival rate. It was concluded that the inoculation of fungi and bacteria improved plant acclimatization in ex vitro conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • survival
  • Ghareghat
  • Tissue culture
  • mycorrhiza
  • Pseudomonas fluorescens
- Assadi, M. and Saghafi, F., 1996. Ribes khorasanicum Grossulariaceae, a new species from NE Iran. The Iranian Journal of Botany, 7(1): 7-10 (In Persian).

- Becard, G. and Piche, Y., 1992. Establishment of vesicular Arbuscular mycorrhiza in root organ culture: review and proposed methodology: 89-108. In: Norris, J.R., Read, D.J. and Varma, A.K., (Eds.). Methods in Microbiology. Academic Press, London.

- Binet, M.N., Lemoine, M.C., Martin, C., Chambon, C. and Gianinazzi, S., 2007. Micropropagation of olive (Olea europaea L.) and application of mycorrhiza to improve plantlet establishment. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant, 43:473-478.

- Darroudi, H., Akbarinia, M., Safarnejad, A., Hosseini, S.M. and HajianShahri, M., 2015. Micropropagation of Ribes khorasanicum species by tissue culture. Iranian Journal of Rangelands and Forests Plant Breeding and Genetic Research, 23(1): 65-76.

- Deb, C.R. and Imchen, T., 2010. An efficient in vitro hardening of tissue culture raised plants. Biotechnology, 9: 79-83.

- Elsen, A., Declerck, S. and De Waele, D., 2001. Effects of Glomus intraradices on the reproduction of burrowing nematode (Radopholus similis) in dixenic culture. Mycorrhiza, 11: 49-51.

- Giovannetti, M. and Mosse, B., 1980. An evaluation of techniques to measure vesicular arbuscular infection in roots. New Phytol, 84: 489-500.

- Giri, B., Kapoor, R., Agarwal, L. and Mukerji, K.G., 2004. Preinoculation with Arbuscular mycorrhizae helps Acacia auriculiformis grow in degraded Indian wasteland soil. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 35(1-2): 193-204.

- Gosal, S.K., Karlupia, A., Gosal, S.S., Chhibba, I.M. and Varma, A., 2010. Bitization with Piriformospora indica and Pseudomonas fluorescens improves survival rate nutrient acquisition field performance and saponin content of micropropagated Chlorophytum sp. Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 9: 289-297.

- Hao, G., Du, X., Zhao, F. and Ji, H., 2010. Fungal endophytes-inducedabscisic acid is required for flavonoid accumulation in suspension cells of Ginkgo biloba. Biotechnology Letters, 32: 305-314.

- Irannejad, A., Vatan pour, A., Rahnama, H., Jalyani, N. and BozorgPour, R., 2011. Improvement of rooting and acclimization of tissue cultured plantlets of Olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Zard) by Agrobacterium rhizogenes and Trichoderma harzianum. Seed and Plant Production Journal, 26 (2): 85-93 (In Persian).

- Jahani, M., Daghighi, S., Daghighi, M. and Nakhaie, A., 2009. Identification of mycorrhiza in Jujube tree (ziziphus jujuba mill) and the effect of the age of the tree on the quantity of mycorrhiza. Journal of Plant Production, 16(1): 75- 86 (In Persian).

- Kapoor, R. and Bhatnagar, A.K., 2007. Attenuation of cadmium toxicity in mycorrhizal Celery (Apium graveolens L.). World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 20: 1083-1089.

- Kapoor, R., Sharma, D. and Bhatnagor, A.K., 2008. Arbuscular mycorrhizae in micropropagation systems and their potential applications. Scientia Horticulture, 116: 227-239.

- Khosrojerdi, M., Shahsavni, S., Gholipour., M. and Asghari, H., 2013. Effect of rhizobium and mycorrhizal fungi inculation on some nutrient uptake by chickpea at different levels of iron sulfate fertilizer. Crop Production, 6(3): 215-243 (In Persian).

- Panigrahi, S., Lakshmi, K.A., Umesh, N. and Khan, W.A., 2014. Enhanced growth in the clonal propagated plants. Helix, 4: 568 -573.

- Phillips, J.M. and Hayman, J.M., 1970. Improved procedures for clearing roots by staining parasitic and vesicular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. British Mycological Society, 55: 158-160.

- Puthur, J.S., Prasad, K.V.S.K., Sharmila, P. and Pardha Saradhi, P., 1998. Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improves establishment of micropropagated Leucaena leucocephala plantlets. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture, 53: 41-47.

- Rai, M.K., 2001. Current advances in mycorrhization in micropropagation. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant, 37: 158-167.

- Rincon, A., Ruiz-Diez, B., Garcia-Fraile, S., Garcia, J.A.L., Fernandez-Pascual, M., Pueyo, J.J. and de Felipe, M.R., 2005. Colonisation of Pinus halepansis roots by Pseudomonas fluorescens and interaction with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus granulatus. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 51: 303-311.

- Schreiner, R.P. and Bethlenfalvay, G.J., 2003. Crop residue and Collembola interact to determine the growth of mycorrhizal pea plants. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 39:1-8.

- Selosse, M.A., Richard, F., He, X.H. and Simard, S.W., 2006. Mycorrhizal networks: des liaisons dangereuses?. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21: 621-628.

- Sharma, D., Kapoor, R. and Bhatnagar, A.K., 2008. Arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM) technology for the conservation of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn: an endangered medicinal herb. World Journal Microbiology and Biotechnology, 24: 395-400.

- Siviero, M.A., Motta, A.M., Lima, D.D.S., Birolli, R.R., Yun Huh, S., Santinoni, I.A., Murate, L.S., De Castro, C.M.A., Miyauchi, M.Y.H., Zangaro, W., Nogueira, M.A. and Andrade, G., 2008. Interaction among N-fixing bacteria and AM fungi in Amazonian legume tree (Schizolobium amazonicum) in field conditions. Applied Soil Ecology, 39(2): 144-152.

- Turk, M.A., Assaf, T.A., Hameed, K. and Al-Tawaha, M., 2006. Significance of mycorrhizae. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2: 16-20.

- Vestberg, M., Saari, K., Kukkonen, S. and Hurme, T., 2005. Mycotrophy of crops in rotation and soil amendment with peat influence the abundance and effectiveness of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in field soil. Mycorrhiza, 15:447-458.

- Wu, Q.S., Zou, Y.N. and He, X.H., 2010. Contributions of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to growth, photosynthesis, root morphology and ionic balance of citrus seedlings under salt stress. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 32:297-304.

- Yasmeen, T., Hameed, S., Tariq, M. and Ali, S., 2012. Significance of arbuscular mycorrhizal and Bacterial symbionts in tripartite association with Vigna radiata. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 34(4): 1-10.

- Zamani, S.M., Mohmmadi Gol Tapeh, A., Safayee, N., Emam, M., Bojari, J. and Farsi, M.J., 2012. The effect of ectomycorrhizal establishment on physiological and growth characteristics of Populus caspica Bornm. Iranian Journal of forest and range protection research, 10(1): 19-32 (In Persian).