عنوان مقاله [English]
Deadwood is commonly known as an essential structural and functional element in forest communities. Thus it is important to understand its role and natural dynamics to improve the forest management strategies in both managed and unmanaged forests. This study analyzed both qualitative and quantitative characteristics of deadwoods asindicatorsof stand developmental stages in the unmanaged forests of Kheiroud in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Three sample plots were established in the initial, optimal and decay stages, in which attributes such as diameter at breast height, height of all standing and dead trees as well as the decomposition stage of dead trees were recorded. Results showed differencesin the amount of deadwood per ha as well as in volume, type andsizeofthe coarse woody debris (CWD) in all the three stages. The frequency of snags was higher than logs in initial and decay stages, whereasthe proportion of logs was greater than snags in the optimal stage. Moreover, maximum and minimum volume ofthe CWD was observed in the initial and optimal stages. Amongst the species, beech returned the highest number and volume of deadwood in all three stages. In addition, the entire deadwood showed diameter
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