عنوان مقاله [English]
This study aimed at evaluating the box tree habitat after the occurrence of box blight disease in Buxo-Fagtum orientalis (B) and reference pure Fagetum (S) stands in the district 3, Lesakoty catchment No. 36, southeast of Tonekabon in the Mazandaran Province. In each stand, 60 micro-plots with 25 m2 were established, in which the frequency of herbaceous species was recorded. For sampling lichens, 60 × 40 cm quadrats were used. Raw data obtained from the field were compared and analyzed using an independent t-test and CCA analysis. Results revealed that the Simpson species diversity (B = 0.813 ± 0.07, S = 0.649 ± 0.07) and Shannon-Wiener (B = 0.830 ± 0.05, S =0.577 ± 0.05) of herbaceous species were significantly higher in Buxo-Fagetum orientalis stand (p <0.05). In addition, the independent t-test for lichen species showed that Simpson species diversity (B = 0.477±0 0.03, S = 0.629 ± 0.03) and Shannon-Weiner (B=0.738 ± 0.06, S= 1.067± 0/06) inboxwood-beech stand was significantly lower than those in pure beech site (p <0.05). CCA results showed that the environmental conditions, as well as the variability of the presence and diversity of different species of lichens as forest ecosystem bio-indicators were changed, mainly due to the boxwood blight disease in boxwood-beech stand. Further, stand opening caused by disturbances and increase of light reaching the forest floor was identified as a key factor in changing the composition of herbaceous and lichen communities in Buxo-Fagetum orientalis stands.
- Adel, M.N., Pourbabaei, H. and Dey, D.C, 2014. Ecological species group—Environmental factors relationships in unharvested beech forests in the north of Iran. Ecological Engineering, 69: 1-7.
- Asadi, H., Hosseini, S.M., Esmailzadeh, O. and Ahmadi, A., 2011. Flora, life form and chorological study of box tree (Buxus hyrcanus Pojark.) sites in Khybus protected forest, Mazandaran. Iranian Journal of Plant Biology, 3(8): 27-40 (In Persian).
- Castello, M. and Skert, N., 2005. Evaluation of lichen diversity as an indicator of environmental quality in the North Adriatic submediterranean region. Science of the Total Environment, 336(1-3): 201-214.
- De Silva, C.M.S.M. and Senanayake, S.P., 2015. Assessment of epiphytic lichen diversity in pine plantations and adjacent secondary forest in Peacock Hill, Pussellawa, Sri Lanka. International Journal of Modern Botany, 5(2): 29-37.
- Es-hagh Nimvari, M., Mataji, A., Moniri, M.H. and Hosseini, S.M., 2013. Corticolous lichen diversity in the Quercus-Carpinus type (Case study: Nowshahr forests). Iranian Journal of Forest, 5(2): 119-130 (In Persian).
- Fahey, R.T. and Puettmann, K.J., 2007. Ground-layer disturbance and initial conditions influence gap partitioning of understorey vegetation. Journal of Ecology, 95(5): 1098-1109.
- Falk, K.J., Burke, D.M., Elliott, K.A. and Holmes, S.B., 2008. Effects of single-tree and group selection harvesting on the diversity and abundance of spring forest herbs in deciduous forests in southwestern Ontario. Forest Ecology and Management, 255(7): 2486-2494.
- Hamzeh’ee, B., 1994. Determination of Plant Communities (Associations) and Composing Elements of Lesakoti Forests (District 3, South-East Tonekabon). Published by Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, 129: 37p (In Persion).
- Kazemi, S. and Safavi, S.R., 2016. Influence of lichens' diversity on Hyrcanian forests health. Journal of Iran Nature, 2(1): 38-41 (In Persian).
- Kazemnezhad, F., Dastanpour, M., Shekholeslami, A., Poor Mohammad, S. and Habibi, A., 2011. Investigation the vegetation biodiversity in the managed and unmanaged stands of Parrotio-Carpintum in the north of Iran (Case study: Series 5 Behsara). Journal of Biology Science, 5(4): 169-177 (In Persian).
- Khazaeli, P., Rezaee, S., Mirabolfathy, M., Zamanizadeh, H. and Kiadaliri, H., 2016. Distribution, specific detection and the pathogenesis variation of Calonectria pseudonaviculata isolates, causal agent of boxwood blight disease, in Hyrcanian forest of Iran. Entomology and Phytopathology, 84(1): 141-156 (In Persian).
- Kialashki, A., and Anbarlo, J. Comparative study of managed and controlled forest stands in west of Mazandaran (Case study: Seri 3, Lesakoti Forestry Plan). First conference on Natural Resources and Sustainable Development in Southern Lands of Caspian Sea, 8 March 2006, Islamic Azad University, Noor Branch, 14 pp. (In Persian).Krebs, C.J., 1999. Ecological Methodology. Second edition, Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., Menlo Park, California, 745p.
- LeBlanc, N., Salgado-Salazar, C. and Crouch, J.A., 2018. Boxwood blight: an ongoing threat to ornamental and native boxwood. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 102(10): 4371-4380.
- Ludwig, J.A. and Reynolds, J.F., 1988. Statistical Ecology: A Primer on Methods and Computing. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 337p.
- McCarthy, J., 2001. Gap dynamics of forest trees: A review with particular attention to boreal forests. Environmental Reviews, 9(1): 1-59.
- Moning, C., Werth, S., Dziock, F., Bässler, C., Bradtka, J., Hothorn, T. and Müller, M., 2009. Lichen diversity in temperate Montana forests is influenced by forest structure more than climate. Forest Ecology and Management, 258(5): 745-751.
- Nascimbene, J., Brunialti, G., Ravera, S., Frati, L. and Caniglia, G., 2010. Testing Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. As an indicator of lichen conservation importance of Italian forests. Ecological Indicators, 10(2): 353-360.
- Ohsawa, M. and Nagaike, T., 2006. Influence of forest types and effects of forestry activities on species richness and composition of Chrysomelidae in the central mountainous region of Japan. Biodiversity and Conservation, 15(4): 1179-1191.
- Palmer, M.W., McAlister, S.D., Arévalo, J.R. and DeCoster, J.K., 2000. Changes in the understorey during 14 years following catastrophic windthrow in two Minnesota forests. Journal of Vegetation Science, 11(6): 841-854.
- Paltto, H., Nordén, B. and Götmark, F., 2008. Partial cutting as a conservation alternative for oak (Quercus spp.) forest—Response of bryophytes and lichens on dead wood. Forest Ecology and Management, 256(4): 536-547.
- Paritsis, J. and Aizen, M.A., 2008. Effects of exotic conifer plantations on the biodiversity of understory plants, epigeal beetlets and birds in Notofagus dombeyi forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 255(5-6): 1575-1583.
- Pourbabaei, H., Haddadi-Moghaddam, H., Begyom-Faghir, M. and Abedi, T., 2013. The influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis) forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. Biodiversitas, 14(2): 89-94.
- Rezaee, S., Kia-Daliri, H., Sharifi, K., Ahangaran, Y. and Hajmansoor, S., 2013. Boxwood blight caused by Cylindrocladium buxicola in Tonekabon forest. Entomology and Phytopathology, 80(2): 197-198 (In Persian).
- Schaetzl, R.J., Burns S.F., Johnson, D.L. and Small, T.W., 1989. Tree uprooting: review of impacts on forest ecology. Vegetatio, 79(3): 165-176.
- Shabani, S., Akbarinia, M., Jalali, Gh. and Aliarab, A., 2009. The effect of forest gaps size on biodiversity of plant species in Lalis forest-Nowshahr. Iranian Journal of Forest, 1(2): 125-135 (In Persian).
- Shure, D.J., Phillips, D.L. and Bostick, P.E., 2006. Gap size and succession in cutover southern Appalachian forests: an 18 year study of vegetation dynamics. Plant Ecology, 185(2): 299-318.
- Sillett, S.C. and Goslin, M.N., 1999. Distribution of epiphytic macrolichens in relation to remnant trees in a multiple-age Douglas-fir forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 29(8): 1204-1215.
- Thom, D. and Seidl, R., 2016. Natural disturbance impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity in temperate and boreal forests. Biological Review, 91(3): 760-781.
- van Lierop, P., Lindquist, E., Sathyapala, S. and Franceschini, G., 2015. Global forest area disturbance from fire, insect pests, diseases and severe weather events. Forest Ecology and Management, 352(7): 78-88.
- Vetaas, O.R., 1997. The effect of canopy disturbance on species richness in a central Himalayan oak forest. Plant Ecology, 132(1): 29-38.